Linked to the S&P 500® Index
|•||Approximate 24 month term.|
|•||Payment on the Notes will depend on the individual performance of the S&P 500® Index (the “Underlying”).|
|•||1.25-to-1 upside exposure to increases in the Underlying if its closing level on the Valuation Date is greater than the Starting Value, subject to the Max Return of $1,240.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes.|
|•||1-to-1 positive return based on decreases in the Underlying if its closing level on the Valuation Date is less than the Starting Value but greater than or equal to 85% of the Starting Value. Otherwise, you will be exposed to any decrease in the Underlying beyond 85% of the Starting Value, with up to 85% of the principal at risk.|
|•||No periodic interest payments.|
|•||All payments on the Notes are subject to the credit risk of BofA Finance LLC (“BofA Finance”) and Bank of America Corporation (“BAC” or the “Guarantor”).|
|•||The Notes are priced on September 28, 2023, will issue on October 3, 2023 and will mature on October 2, 2025.|
|•||The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.|
|•||CUSIP No. 09711ASK5.|
The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the pricing date is $982.10 per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes, which is less than the public offering price listed below. The actual value of your Notes at any time will reflect many factors and cannot be predicted with accuracy. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page PS-6 of this pricing supplement and “Structuring the Notes” on page PS-15 of this pricing supplement for additional information. Potential purchasers of the Notes should consider the information in “Risk Factors” beginning on page PS-6 of this pricing supplement, page PS-5 of the accompanying product supplement, page S-6 of the accompanying prospectus supplement, and page 7 of the accompanying prospectus.
None of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), any state securities commission, or any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this pricing supplement and the accompanying product supplement, prospectus supplement and prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
|Public offering price||Underwriting discount(1)||Proceeds, before expenses, to BofA Finance|
|(1)||In addition to the underwriting discount above, if any, an affiliate of BofA Finance will pay a referral fee of up to $4.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes in connection with the distribution of the Notes to other registered broker dealers.|
The Notes and the related guarantee:
|Are Not FDIC Insured||Are Not Bank Guaranteed||May Lose Value|
Terms of the Notes
The Dual Directional Buffered Notes Linked to the S&P 500® Index (the “Notes”) provide a 1.25:1 upside exposure to increases in the Underlying if the Ending Value is greater than or equal to the Starting Value subject to the Max Return of $1,240.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes. If the Ending Value of the Underlying is less than the Starting Value but greater than or equal to the Threshold Value, you will receive a positive return equal to the Absolute Underlying Return. However, if the Ending Value of the Underlying is less than the Threshold Value, you will be exposed to any decrease in the Underlying beyond the Threshold Value, and you will lose some or a substantial portion of your investment in the Notes. The Notes are not traditional debt securities and it is possible that you may lose some or a substantial portion of your principal amount at maturity. Any payments on the Notes will be calculated based on $1,000 in principal amount of Notes and will depend on the performance of the Underlying, subject to our and BAC’s credit risk.
|Denominations:||The Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $1,000 and whole multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.|
|Term:||Approximately 24 months|
|Underlying:||The S&P 500® Index (Bloomberg symbol: “SPX”), a price return index.|
|Pricing Date:||September 28, 2023|
|Issue Date:||October 3, 2023|
|Valuation Date:||September 29, 2025, subject to postponement as described under “Description of the Notes—Certain Terms of the Notes—Events Relating to Calculation Days” of the accompanying product supplement.|
|Maturity Date:||October 2, 2025|
|Ending Value:||The closing level of the Underlying on the Valuation Date, as determined by the calculation agent.|
|Threshold Value:||3,654.75, which is 85% of the Starting Value (rounded to two decimal places).|
|Max Return:||$1,240.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes, which represents a return of 24.00% over the principal amount.|
|Upside Participation Rate:||125%|
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-2|
At maturity, the Redemption Amount per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes will be:
a) If the Ending Value of the Underlying is greater than or equal to the Starting Value:
b) If the Ending Value of the Underlying is less than the Starting Value but greater than or equal to the Threshold Value:
c) If the Ending Value of the Underlying is less than the Threshold Value:
In this case, the Redemption Amount will be less than the principal amount and you will lose some or a substantial portion of the principal amount.
|Calculation Agent:||BofA Securities, Inc. (“BofAS”), an affiliate of BofA Finance.|
|Absolute Underlying Return:||
The absolute value of the Underlying Return.
For example, if the Underlying Return is -5%, the Absolute Underlying Return will equal 5%.
|Events of Default and Acceleration:||If an Event of Default, as defined in the senior indenture relating to the Notes and in the section entitled “Description of Debt Securities of BofA Finance LLC—Events of Default and Rights of Acceleration; Covenant Breaches” on page 54 of the accompanying prospectus, with respect to the Notes occurs and is continuing, the amount payable to a holder of the Notes upon any acceleration permitted under the senior indenture will be equal to the amount described under the caption “—Redemption Amount” above, calculated as though the date of acceleration were the Maturity Date of the Notes and as though the Valuation Date were the third trading day prior to the date of acceleration. In case of a default in the payment of the Notes, whether at their maturity or upon acceleration, the Notes will not bear a default interest rate.|
Any payments on the Notes depend on the credit risk of BofA Finance, as Issuer, and BAC, as Guarantor, and on the performance of the Underlying. The economic terms of the Notes are based on BAC’s internal funding rate, which is the rate it would pay to borrow funds through the issuance of market-linked notes, and the economic terms of certain related hedging arrangements BAC’s affiliates enter into. BAC’s internal funding rate is typically lower than the rate it would pay when it issues conventional fixed or floating rate debt securities. This difference in funding rate, as well as the underwriting discount, if any, the referral fee and the hedging related charges described below (see “Risk Factors” beginning on page PS-6), reduced the economic terms of the Notes to you and the initial estimated value of the Notes. Due to these factors, the public offering price you are paying to purchase the Notes is greater than the initial estimated value of the Notes as of the pricing date.
The initial estimated value of the
Notes as of the pricing date is set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement. For more information about the initial estimated
value and the structuring of the Notes, see “Risk Factors” beginning on page PS-6 and “Structuring the Notes”
on page PS-15.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-3|
Redemption Amount Determination
On the Maturity Date, you will receive a cash payment per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes determined as follows:
All payments described above are subject to the credit risk of BofA Finance, as Issuer, and BAC, as Guarantor.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-4|
Hypothetical Payout Profile and Examples of Payments at Maturity
Dual Directional Buffered Notes Table
The following table is for purposes of illustration only. It is based on hypothetical values and shows hypothetical returns on the Notes. The table illustrates the calculation of the Redemption Amount and the return on the Notes based on a hypothetical Starting Value of 100, a hypothetical Threshold Value of 85, the Upside Participation Rate of 125%, the Max Return of $1,240.00 and a range of hypothetical Ending Values of the Underlying. The actual amount you receive and the resulting return will depend on the actual Starting Value, Threshold Value and Ending Value and whether you hold the Notes to maturity. The following examples do not take into account any tax consequences from investing in the Notes.
For recent actual levels of the Underlying, see “The Underlying” section below. The Underlying is a price return index and as such the Ending Value will not include any income generated by dividends paid on the stocks included in the Underlying, which you would otherwise be entitled to receive if you invested in those stocks directly. In addition, all payments on the Notes are subject to Issuer and Guarantor credit risk.
|Ending Value||Underlying Return||Redemption Amount per Note||Return on the Notes|
|(1)||The hypothetical Starting Value of 100 used in the table above has been chosen for illustrative purposes only. The actual Starting Value for the Underlying is set forth on page PS-2 above.|
|(2)||This is the hypothetical Threshold Value of the Underlying.|
|(3)||Any positive return based on the depreciation of the Underlying cannot exceed the return provided by the hypothetical Threshold Value.|
|(4)||Any positive return based on the appreciation of the Underlying cannot exceed the Max Return.|
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-5|
Your investment in the Notes entails significant risks, many of which differ from those of a conventional debt security. Your decision to purchase the Notes should be made only after carefully considering the risks of an investment in the Notes, including those discussed below, with your advisors in light of your particular circumstances. The Notes are not an appropriate investment for you if you are not knowledgeable about significant elements of the Notes or financial matters in general. You should carefully review the more detailed explanation of risks relating to the Notes in the “Risk Factors” sections beginning on page PS-5 of the accompanying product supplement, page S-6 of the accompanying prospectus supplement and page 7 of the accompanying prospectus, each as identified on page PS-19 below.
|•||Your investment may result in a loss; there is no guaranteed return of principal. There is no fixed principal repayment amount on the Notes at maturity. If the Ending Value of the Underlying is less than the Threshold Value, you will lose 1% of the principal amount for each 1% that the Ending Value of the Underlying is less than the Threshold Value. In that case, you will lose some or a significant portion of your investment in the Notes.|
|•||Any positive return on the Notes will be limited. Any positive return on the Notes based on the appreciation of the Underlying will be limited to the Max Return. Your return on the Notes may be less than the return that you could have realized if you invested directly in the Underlying, and you will not receive the full benefit of any appreciation in the value of the Underlying beyond that maximum return.|
|•||The Notes do not bear interest. Unlike a conventional debt security, no interest payments will be paid over the term of the Notes, regardless of the extent to which the Ending Value of the Underlying exceeds the Starting Value or Threshold Value.|
|•||Your potential for a positive return based on the depreciation of the Underlying is limited. The Absolute Underlying Return feature applies only if the Ending Value of the Underlying is less than the Starting Value but greater than or equal to the Threshold Value. Because the Threshold Value for the Underlying is 85% of the Starting Value, any positive return due to the depreciation of the Underlying is limited to 10%. Any decline in the Ending Value of the Underlying from the Starting Value by more than 10% will result in a loss, rather than a positive return, on the Notes.|
|•||The Redemption Amount will not reflect the level of the Underlying other than on the Valuation Date. The level of the Underlying during the term of the Notes other than on the Valuation Date will not affect payment on the Notes. Notwithstanding the foregoing, investors should generally be aware of the performance of the Underlying while holding the Notes. The calculation agent will calculate the Redemption Amount by comparing only the Starting Value or the Threshold Value, as applicable, to the Ending Value for the Underlying. No other levels of the Underlying will be taken into account. As a result, you will receive less than the principal amount at maturity even if the level of the Underlying has increased at certain times during the term of the Notes before the Underlying decreases to a level that is less than the Threshold Value as of the Valuation Date.|
|•||Your return on the Notes may be less than the yield on a conventional debt security of comparable maturity. Any return that you receive on the Notes may be less than the return you would earn if you purchased a conventional debt security with the same Maturity Date. As a result, your investment in the Notes may not reflect the full opportunity cost to you when you consider factors, such as inflation, that affect the time value of money.|
|•||Any payment on the Notes is subject to our credit risk and the credit risk of the Guarantor, and any actual or perceived changes in our or the Guarantor’s creditworthiness are expected to affect the value of the Notes. The Notes are our senior unsecured debt securities. Any payment on the Notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Guarantor. The Notes are not guaranteed by any entity other than the Guarantor. As a result, your receipt of the Redemption Amount at maturity will be dependent upon our ability and the ability of the Guarantor to repay our respective obligations under the Notes on the Maturity Date, regardless of the Ending Value of the Underlying as compared to the Starting Value. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition or the financial condition of the Guarantor will be at any time after the pricing date of the Notes. If we and the Guarantor become unable to meet our respective financial obligations as they become due, you may not receive the amount(s) payable under the terms of the Notes.|
In addition, our credit ratings and the credit ratings of the Guarantor are assessments by ratings agencies of our respective abilities to pay our obligations. Consequently, our or the Guarantor’s perceived creditworthiness and actual or anticipated decreases in our or the Guarantor’s credit ratings or increases in the spread between the yield on our respective securities and the yield on U.S. Treasury securities (the “credit spread”) prior to the Maturity Date of your Notes may adversely affect the market value of the Notes. However, because your return on the Notes depends upon factors in addition to our ability and the ability of the Guarantor to pay our respective obligations, such as the value of the Underlying, an improvement in our or the Guarantor’s credit ratings will not reduce the other investment risks related to the Notes.
|•||We are a finance subsidiary and, as such, have no independent assets, operations, or revenues. We are a finance subsidiary of the Guarantor, have no operations other than those related to the issuance, administration and repayment of our debt securities that are guaranteed by the Guarantor, and are dependent upon the Guarantor and/or its other subsidiaries to meet our obligations under the Notes in the ordinary course. Therefore, our ability to make payments on the Notes may be limited.|
Valuation- and Market-related Risks
|•||The public offering price you are paying for the Notes exceeds their initial estimated value. The initial estimated value of the Notes that is|
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-6|
provided on the cover page of this pricing supplement is an estimate only, determined as of the pricing date by reference to our and our affiliates’ pricing models. These pricing models consider certain assumptions and variables, including our credit spreads and those of the Guarantor, the Guarantor’s internal funding rate, mid-market terms on hedging transactions, expectations on interest rates, dividends and volatility, price-sensitivity analysis, and the expected term of the Notes. These pricing models rely in part on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value may be lower than the price you paid for them and lower than their initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the level of the Underlying, changes in the Guarantor’s internal funding rate, and the inclusion in the public offering price of the underwriting discount, if any, the referral fee and the hedging related charges, all as further described in "Structuring the Notes" below. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways.
|•||The initial estimated value does not represent a minimum or maximum price at which we, BAC, BofAS or any of our other affiliates would be willing to purchase your Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. The value of your Notes at any time after issuance will vary based on many factors that cannot be predicted with accuracy, including the performance of the Underlying, our and BAC’s creditworthiness and changes in market conditions.|
|•||We cannot assure you that a trading market for your Notes will ever develop or be maintained. We will not list the Notes on any securities exchange. We cannot predict how the Notes will trade in any secondary market or whether that market will be liquid or illiquid.|
|•||Trading and hedging activities by us, the Guarantor and
any of our other affiliates, including BofAS, may create conflicts of interest with you and may affect your return on the Notes and their
market value. We, the Guarantor or one or more of our other affiliates, including BofAS, may buy or sell the securities held by or
included in the Underlying, or futures or options contracts or exchange traded instruments on the Underlying or those securities, or other
instruments whose value is derived from the Underlying or those securities. While we, the Guarantor or one or more of our other affiliates,
including BofAS, may from time to time own securities represented by the Underlying, except to the extent that BAC’s common stock
may be included in the Underlying, we, the Guarantor and our other affiliates, including BofAS, do not control any company included in
the Underlying, and have not verified any disclosure made by any other company. We, the Guarantor or one or more of our other affiliates,
including BofAS, may execute such purchases or sales for our own or their own accounts, for business reasons, or in connection with hedging
our obligations under the Notes. These transactions may present a conflict of interest between your interest in the Notes and the interests
we, the Guarantor and our other affiliates, including BofAS, may have in our or their proprietary accounts, in facilitating transactions,
including block trades, for our or their other customers, and in accounts under our or their management. These transactions may adversely
affect the value of the Underlying in a manner that could be adverse to your investment in the Notes. On or before the pricing date, any
purchases or sales by us, the Guarantor or our other affiliates, including BofAS or others on our or their behalf (including those for
the purpose of hedging some or all of our anticipated exposure in connection with the Notes), may have affected the value of the Underlying.
Consequently, the value of the Underlying may change subsequent to the pricing date, which may adversely affect the market value of the
We, the Guarantor or one or more of our other affiliates, including BofAS, also may have engaged in hedging activities that could have affected the value of the Underlying on the pricing date. In addition, these hedging activities, including the unwinding of a hedge, may decrease the market value of your Notes prior to maturity, and may affect the amounts to be paid on the Notes. We, the Guarantor or one or more of our other affiliates, including BofAS, may purchase or otherwise acquire a long or short position in the Notes and may hold or resell the Notes. For example, BofAS may enter into these transactions in connection with any market making activities in which it engages. We cannot assure you that these activities will not adversely affect the value of the Underlying, the market value of your Notes prior to maturity or the amounts payable on the Notes.
|•||There may be potential conflicts of interest involving the calculation agent, which is an affiliate of ours. We have the right to appoint and remove the calculation agent. One of our affiliates will be the calculation agent for the Notes and, as such, will make a variety of determinations relating to the Notes, including the amounts that will be paid on the Notes. Under some circumstances, these duties could result in a conflict of interest between its status as our affiliate and its responsibilities as calculation agent.|
|•||The publisher of the Underlying may adjust the Underlying in a way that affects its levels, and the publisher has no obligation to consider your interests. The publisher of the Underlying can add, delete, or substitute the components included in the Underlying or make other methodological changes that could change its level. Any of these actions could adversely affect the value of your Notes.|
|•||The U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in the Notes are uncertain, and may be adverse to a holder of the Notes. No statutory, judicial, or administrative authority directly addresses the characterization of the Notes or securities similar to the Notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, significant aspects of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in the Notes are not certain. Under the terms of the Notes, you will have agreed with us to treat the Notes as single financial contracts, as described below under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Summary—General.” If the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) were successful in asserting an alternative characterization for the Notes, the timing and character of gain or loss with respect to the Notes may differ. No ruling will be requested from the IRS with respect to the Notes and no assurance can be given that the IRS will agree with the statements made in the section entitled “U.S.|
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-7|
Federal Income Tax Summary.” You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding all aspects of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of investing in the Notes.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-8|
All disclosures contained in this pricing supplement regarding the Underlying, including, without limitation, its make-up, method of calculation, and changes in its components, have been derived from publicly available sources. The information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by, S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“SPDJI”), the sponsor of the SPX. We refer to SPDJI as the "Underlying Sponsor". The Underlying Sponsor, which licenses the copyright and all other rights to the Underlying, has no obligation to continue to publish, and may discontinue publication of, the Underlying. The consequences of the Underlying Sponsor discontinuing publication of the Underlying are discussed in “Description of the Notes—Discontinuance of an Index” in the accompanying product supplement. None of us, the Guarantor, the calculation agent, or BofAS accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of the Underlying or any successor index. None of us, the Guarantor, BofAS or any of our other affiliates makes any representation to you as to the future performance of the Underlying. You should make your own investigation into the Underlying.
The S&P 500® Index
The SPX includes a representative sample of 500 companies in leading industries of the U.S. economy. The SPX is intended to provide an indication of the pattern of common stock price movement. The calculation of the level of the SPX is based on the relative value of the aggregate market value of the common stocks of 500 companies as of a particular time compared to the aggregate average market value of the common stocks of 500 similar companies during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943.
The SPX includes companies from eleven main groups: Communication Services; Consumer Discretionary; Consumer Staples; Energy; Financials; Health Care; Industrials; Information Technology; Real Estate; Materials; and Utilities. SPDJI, may from time to time, in its sole discretion, add companies to, or delete companies from, the SPX to achieve the objectives stated above.
Company additions to the SPX must have an unadjusted company market capitalization of $14.5 billion or more (an increase from the previous requirement of an unadjusted company market capitalization of $12.7 billion or more).
SPDJI calculates the SPX by reference to the prices of the constituent stocks of the SPX without taking account of the value of dividends paid on those stocks. As a result, the return on the Notes will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the SPX constituent stocks and received the dividends paid on those stocks.
Computation of the SPX
While SPDJI currently employs the following methodology to calculate the SPX, no assurance can be given that SPDJI will not modify or change this methodology in a manner that may affect payments on the Notes.
Historically, the market value of any component stock of the SPX was calculated as the product of the market price per share and the number of then outstanding shares of such component stock. In March 2005, SPDJI began shifting the SPX halfway from a market capitalization weighted formula to a float-adjusted formula, before moving the SPX to full float adjustment on September 16, 2005. SPDJI’s criteria for selecting stocks for the SPX did not change with the shift to float adjustment. However, the adjustment affects each company’s weight in the SPX.
Under float adjustment, the share counts used in calculating the SPX reflect only those shares that are available to investors, not all of a company’s outstanding shares. Float adjustment excludes shares that are closely held by control groups, other publicly traded companies or government agencies.
In September 2012, all shareholdings representing more than 5% of a stock’s outstanding shares, other than holdings by “block owners,” were removed from the float for purposes of calculating the SPX. Generally, these “control holders” will include officers and directors, private equity, venture capital and special equity firms, other publicly traded companies that hold shares for control, strategic partners, holders of restricted shares, ESOPs, employee and family trusts, foundations associated with the company, holders of unlisted share classes of stock, government entities at all levels (other than government retirement/pension funds) and any individual person who controls a 5% or greater stake in a company as reported in regulatory filings. However, holdings by block owners, such as depositary banks, pension funds, mutual funds and ETF providers, 401(k) plans of the company, government retirement/pension funds, investment funds of insurance companies, asset managers and investment funds, independent foundations and savings and investment plans, will ordinarily be considered part of the float.
Treasury stock, stock options, restricted shares, equity participation units, warrants, preferred stock, convertible stock, and rights are not part of the float. Shares held in a trust to allow investors in countries outside the country of domicile, such as depositary shares and Canadian exchangeable shares, are normally part of the float unless those shares form a control block. If a company has multiple classes of stock outstanding, shares in an unlisted or non-traded class are treated as a control block.
For each stock, an investable weight factor (“IWF”) is calculated by dividing the available float shares by the total shares outstanding. Available float shares are defined as the total shares outstanding less shares held by control holders. This calculation is subject to a 5% minimum threshold for control blocks. For example, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares, and no other control group holds 5% of the company’s shares, SPDJI would assign that company an IWF of 1.00, as no control group meets the 5% threshold. However, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares and another control group holds 20% of the company’s shares, SPDJI would assign an IWF of 0.77, reflecting the fact that 23% of the company’s outstanding shares are considered to be held for control. As of July 31, 2017, companies with multiple share class lines are no longer eligible for inclusion in the SPX. Constituents of the SPX prior to July 31, 2017 with multiple share class lines
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-9|
will be grandfathered in and continue to be included in the SPX. If a constituent company of the SPX reorganizes into a multiple share class line structure, that company will remain in the SPX at the discretion of the S&P Index Committee in order to minimize turnover.
The SPX is calculated using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The level of the SPX reflects the total market value of all component stocks relative to the base period of the years 1941 through 1943. An indexed number is used to represent the results of this calculation in order to make the level easier to work with and track over time. The actual total market value of the component stocks during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943 has been set to an indexed level of 10. This is often indicated by the notation 1941- 43 = 10. In practice, the daily calculation of the SPX is computed by dividing the total market value of the component stocks by the “index divisor.” By itself, the index divisor is an arbitrary number. However, in the context of the calculation of the SPX, it serves as a link to the original base period level of the SPX. The index divisor keeps the SPX comparable over time and is the manipulation point for all adjustments to the SPX, which is index maintenance.
Index maintenance includes monitoring and completing the adjustments for company additions and deletions, share changes, stock splits, stock dividends, and stock price adjustments due to company restructuring or spinoffs. Some corporate actions, such as stock splits and stock dividends, require changes in the common shares outstanding and the stock prices of the companies in the SPX, and do not require index divisor adjustments.
To prevent the level of the SPX from changing due to corporate actions, corporate actions which affect the total market value of the SPX require an index divisor adjustment. By adjusting the index divisor for the change in market value, the level of the SPX remains constant and does not reflect the corporate actions of individual companies in the SPX. Index divisor adjustments are made after the close of trading and after the calculation of the SPX closing level.
Changes in a company’s shares outstanding of 5.00% or more due to mergers, acquisitions, public offerings, tender offers, Dutch auctions, or exchange offers are made as soon as reasonably possible. Share changes due to mergers or acquisitions of publicly held companies that trade on a major exchange are implemented when the transaction occurs, even if both of the companies are not in the same headline index, and regardless of the size of the change. All other changes of 5.00% or more (due to, for example, company stock repurchases, private placements, redemptions, exercise of options, warrants, conversion of preferred stock, notes, debt, equity participation units, at-the-market offerings, or other recapitalizations) are made weekly and are announced on Fridays for implementation after the close of trading on the following Friday. Changes of less than 5.00% are accumulated and made quarterly on the third Friday of March, June, September, and December, and are usually announced two to five days prior.
If a change in a company’s shares outstanding of 5.00% or more causes a company’s IWF to change by five percentage points or more, the IWF is updated at the same time as the share change. IWF changes resulting from partial tender offers are considered on a case-by-case basis.
Historical Performance of the SPX
The following graph sets forth the daily historical performance of the SPX in the period from January 2, 2018 through the pricing date. We obtained this historical data from Bloomberg L.P. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg L.P. The horizontal line in the graph represents the SPX’s Threshold Value of 3,654.75 (rounded to two decimal places), which is 85% of the SPX’s Starting Value of 4,299.70.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-10|
This historical data on the SPX is not necessarily indicative of the future performance of the SPX or what the value of the Notes may be. Any historical upward or downward trend in the level of the SPX during any period set forth above is not an indication that the level of the SPX is more or less likely to increase or decrease at any time over the term of the Notes.
Before investing in the Notes, you should consult publicly available sources for the levels of the SPX.
S&P® is a registered trademark of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”) and Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”). These trademarks have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC. “Standard & Poor’s®,” “S&P 500®” and “S&P®” are trademarks of S&P. These trademarks have been sublicensed for certain purposes by our affiliate, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated. The SPX is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and/or its affiliates and has been licensed for use by Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated.
The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, S&P or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the holders of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly or the ability of the SPX to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated with respect to the SPX is the licensing of the SPX and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its third-party licensors. The SPX is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to us, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, or the Notes. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take our needs, BAC’s needs or the needs of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated or holders of the Notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the SPX. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices and amount of the Notes or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Notes or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Notes are to be converted into cash. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes. There is no assurance that investment products based on the SPX will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its subsidiaries are not investment advisors. Inclusion of a security or futures contract within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security or futures contract, nor is it considered to be investment advice. Notwithstanding the foregoing, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may independently issue and/or sponsor financial products unrelated to the Notes currently being issued by us, but which may be similar to and competitive with the Notes. In addition, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may trade financial products which are linked to the performance of the SPX. It is possible that this trading activity will affect the value of the Notes.
S&P DOW JONES INDICES DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE SPX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY US, BAC, BOFAS, MERRILL LYNCH, PIERCE, FENNER & SMITH INCORPORATED, HOLDERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-11|
SPX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD-PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND MERRILL LYNCH, PIERCE, FENNER & SMITH INCORPORATED, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-12|
Supplement to the Plan of Distribution; Role of BofAS and Conflicts of Interest
BofAS, a broker-dealer affiliate of ours, is a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) and will participate as selling agent in the distribution of the Notes. Accordingly, the offering of the Notes will conform to the requirements of FINRA Rule 5121. BofAS may not make sales in this offering to any of its discretionary accounts without the prior written approval of the account holder.
We will deliver the Notes against payment therefor in New York, New York on a date that is greater than two business days following the pricing date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
Under our distribution agreement with BofAS, BofAS will purchase the Notes from us as principal at the public offering price indicated on the cover of this pricing supplement, less the indicated underwriting discount, if any. BofAS will sell the Notes to other broker-dealers that will participate in the offering and that are not affiliated with us, at an agreed discount to the principal amount. Each of those broker-dealers may sell the Notes to one or more additional broker-dealers. BofAS has informed us that these discounts may vary from dealer to dealer and that not all dealers will purchase or repurchase the Notes at the same discount. In addition to the underwriting discount, if any, an affiliate of BofA Finance will pay a referral fee of up to $4.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of Notes in connection with the distribution of the Notes to other registered broker-dealers.
BofAS and any of our other broker-dealer affiliates may use this pricing supplement and the accompanying product supplement, prospectus supplement and prospectus for offers and sales in secondary market transactions and market-making transactions in the Notes. However, they are not obligated to engage in such secondary market transactions and/or market-making transactions. These broker-dealer affiliates may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and any such sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market conditions at the time of the sale.
At BofAS’s discretion, for a short, undetermined initial period after the issuance of the Notes, BofAS may offer to buy the Notes in the secondary market at a price that may exceed the initial estimated value of the Notes. Any price offered by BofAS for the Notes will be based on then-prevailing market conditions and other considerations, including the performance of the Underlying and the remaining term of the Notes. However, none of us, the Guarantor, BofAS or any of our other affiliates is obligated to purchase your Notes at any price or at any time, and we cannot assure you that any party will purchase your Notes at a price that equals or exceeds the initial estimated value of the Notes.
Any price that BofAS may pay to repurchase the Notes will depend upon then prevailing market conditions, the creditworthiness of us and the Guarantor, and transaction costs. At certain times, this price may be higher than or lower than the initial estimated value of the Notes.
European Economic Area and United Kingdom
None of this pricing supplement, the accompanying product supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the accompanying prospectus supplement is a prospectus for the purposes of the Prospectus Regulation (as defined below). This pricing supplement, the accompanying product supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement have been prepared on the basis that any offer of Notes in any Member State of the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) or in the United Kingdom (each, a “Relevant State”) will only be made to a legal entity which is a qualified investor under the Prospectus Regulation (“Qualified Investors”). Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in that Relevant State of Notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated in this pricing supplement, the accompanying product supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement may only do so with respect to Qualified Investors. Neither BofA Finance nor BAC has authorized, nor does it authorize, the making of any offer of Notes other than to Qualified Investors. The expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129.
PROHIBITION OF SALES TO EEA AND UNITED KINGDOM RETAIL INVESTORS – The Notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the EEA or in the United Kingdom. For these purposes: (a) a retail investor means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU, as amended (“MiFID II”); or (ii) a customer within the meaning of Directive (EU) 2016/97 (the Insurance Distribution Directive) where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or (iii) not a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Regulation; and (b) the expression “offer” includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the Notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the Notes. Consequently no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014, as amended (the “PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA or in the United Kingdom has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA or in the United Kingdom may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation.
The communication of this pricing supplement, the accompanying product supplement, the accompanying prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any other document or materials relating to the issue of the Notes offered hereby is not being made, and such documents and/or materials have not been approved, by an authorized person for the purposes of section 21 of the United Kingdom’s Financial
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-13|
Services and Markets Act 2000, as amended (the “FSMA”). Accordingly, such documents and/or materials are not being distributed to, and must not be passed on to, the general public in the United Kingdom. The communication of such documents and/or materials as a financial promotion is only being made to those persons in the United Kingdom who have professional experience in matters relating to investments and who fall within the definition of investment professionals (as defined in Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Financial Promotion Order”)), or who fall within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Financial Promotion Order, or who are any other persons to whom it may otherwise lawfully be made under the Financial Promotion Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”). In the United Kingdom, the Notes offered hereby are only available to, and any investment or investment activity to which this pricing supplement, the accompanying product supplement, the accompanying prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relates will be engaged in only with, relevant persons. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this pricing supplement, the accompanying product supplement, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any of their contents.
Any invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the FSMA) in connection with the issue or sale of the Notes may only be communicated or caused to be communicated in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to BofA Finance, as issuer, or BAC, as guarantor.
All applicable provisions of the FSMA must be complied with in respect to anything done by any person in relation to the Notes in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-14|
Structuring the Notes
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Underlying. The related guarantee is BAC’s obligation. As is the case for all of our and BAC’s respective debt securities, including our market-linked notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our and BAC’s actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing. In addition, because market-linked notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us and BAC, BAC typically borrows the funds under these types of notes at a rate, which we refer to in this pricing supplement as BAC’s internal funding rate, that is more favorable to BAC than the rate that it might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security. This generally relatively lower internal funding rate, which is reflected in the economic terms of the Notes, along with the fees and charges associated with market-linked notes, resulted in the initial estimated value of the Notes on the pricing date being less than their public offering price.
In order to meet our payment obligations on the Notes, at the time we issue the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) with BofAS or one of our other affiliates. The terms of these hedging arrangements are determined based upon terms provided by BofAS and its affiliates, and take into account a number of factors, including our and BAC’s creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Underlying, the tenor of the Notes and the hedging arrangements. The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
BofAS has advised us that the hedging arrangements will include hedging related charges, reflecting the costs associated with, and our affiliates’ profit earned from, these hedging arrangements. Since hedging entails risk and may be influenced by unpredictable market forces, actual profits or losses from these hedging transactions may be more or less than any expected amounts.
For further information, see “Risk Factors” beginning on page PS-6 above and “Supplemental Use of Proceeds” on page PS-20 of the accompanying product supplement.
Validity of the Notes
In the opinion of McGuireWoods LLP, as counsel to BofA Finance, as issuer, and BAC, as guarantor, when the trustee has made the appropriate entries or notations on Schedule 1 to the master global note that represents the Notes (the “Master Note”) identifying the Notes offered hereby as supplemental obligations thereunder in accordance with the instructions of BofA Finance, and the Notes have been delivered against payment therefor as contemplated in this pricing supplement and the related prospectus, prospectus supplement and product supplement, all in accordance with the provisions of the indenture governing the Notes and the related guarantee, such Notes will be the legal, valid and binding obligations of BofA Finance, and the related guarantee will be the legal, valid and binding obligation of BAC, subject, in each case, to the effects of applicable bankruptcy, insolvency (including laws relating to preferences, fraudulent transfers and equitable subordination), reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, and to general principles of equity. This opinion is given as of the date of this pricing supplement and is limited to the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act (including the statutory provisions, all applicable provisions of the Delaware Constitution and reported judicial decisions interpreting either of the foregoing) and the laws of the State of New York as in effect on the date hereof. In addition, this opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the indenture governing the Notes and due authentication of the Master Note, the validity, binding nature and enforceability of the indenture governing the Notes and the related guarantee with respect to the trustee, the legal capacity of individuals, the genuineness of signatures, the authenticity of all documents submitted to McGuireWoods LLP as originals, the conformity to original documents of all documents submitted to McGuireWoods LLP as copies thereof, the authenticity of the originals of such copies and certain factual matters, all as stated in the opinion letter of McGuireWoods LLP dated December 8, 2022, which has been filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement (File Nos. 333-268718 and 333-268718-01) of BAC and BofA Finance, filed with the SEC on December 8, 2022.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-15|
U.S. Federal Income Tax Summary
The following summary of the material U.S. federal income and estate tax considerations of the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of the Notes supplements, and to the extent inconsistent supersedes, the discussion under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus and is not exhaustive of all possible tax considerations. This summary is based upon the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), regulations promulgated under the Code by the U.S. Treasury Department (“Treasury”) (including proposed and temporary regulations), rulings, current administrative interpretations and official pronouncements of the IRS, and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. This summary does not include any description of the tax laws of any state or local governments, or of any foreign government, that may be applicable to a particular holder.
Although the Notes are issued by us, they will be treated as if they were issued by BAC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly throughout this tax discussion, references to “we,” “our” or “us” are generally to BAC unless the context requires otherwise.
This summary is directed solely to U.S. Holders and Non-U.S. Holders that, except as otherwise specifically noted, will purchase the Notes upon original issuance and will hold the Notes as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code, which generally means property held for investment, and that are not excluded from the discussion under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.
You should consult your own tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of acquiring, owning, and disposing of the Notes, as well as any tax consequences arising under the laws of any state, local, foreign, or other tax jurisdiction and the possible effects of changes in U.S. federal or other tax laws.
Although there is no statutory, judicial, or administrative authority directly addressing the characterization of the Notes, in the opinion of our counsel, Sidley Austin LLP, and based on certain factual representations received from us, the Notes should be treated as single financial contracts with respect to the Underlying and under the terms of the Notes, we and every investor in the Notes agree, in the absence of an administrative determination or judicial ruling to the contrary, to treat the Notes in accordance with such characterization. This discussion assumes that the Notes constitute single financial contracts with respect to the Underlying for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If the Notes did not constitute single financial contracts, the tax consequences described below would be materially different.
This characterization of the Notes is not binding on the IRS or the courts. No statutory, judicial, or administrative authority directly addresses the characterization of the Notes or any similar instruments for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and no ruling is being requested from the IRS with respect to their proper characterization and treatment. Due to the absence of authorities on point, significant aspects of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in the Notes are not certain, and no assurance can be given that the IRS or any court will agree with the characterization and tax treatment described in this pricing supplement. Accordingly, you are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding all aspects of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in the Notes, including possible alternative characterizations.
Unless otherwise stated, the following discussion is based on the characterization described above. The discussion in this section assumes that there is a significant possibility of a significant loss of principal on an investment in the Notes.
We will not attempt to ascertain whether the issuer of a component stock included in the Underlying would be treated as a “passive foreign investment company” (“PFIC”), within the meaning of Section 1297 of the Code, or a United States real property holding corporation, within the meaning of Section 897(c) of the Code. If the issuer of one or more stocks included in the Underlying were so treated, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could possibly apply to a holder of the Notes. You should refer to information filed with the SEC by the issuers of the component stocks included in the Underlying and consult your tax advisor regarding the possible consequences to you, if any, if any issuer of a component stock included in the Underlying is or becomes a PFIC or is or becomes a United States real property holding corporation.
Upon receipt of a cash payment at maturity or upon a sale or exchange of the Notes prior to maturity, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the Notes. A U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the Notes will equal the amount paid by that holder to acquire them. This capital gain or loss generally will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder held the Notes for more than one year. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
Alternative Tax Treatments. Due to the absence of authorities that directly address the proper tax treatment of the Notes, prospective investors are
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-16|
urged to consult their tax advisors regarding all possible alternative tax treatments of an investment in the Notes. In particular, the IRS could seek to subject the Notes to the Treasury regulations governing contingent payment debt instruments. If the IRS were successful in that regard, the timing and character of income on the Notes would be affected significantly. Among other things, a U.S. Holder would be required to accrue original issue discount every year at a “comparable yield” determined at the time of issuance. In addition, any gain realized by a U.S. Holder at maturity or upon a sale or exchange of the Notes generally would be treated as ordinary income, and any loss realized at maturity or upon a sale or exchange of the Notes generally would be treated as ordinary loss to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s prior accruals of original issue discount, and as capital loss thereafter.
The IRS released Notice 2008-2 (the “Notice”), which sought comments from the public on the taxation of financial instruments currently taxed as “prepaid forward contracts.” This Notice addresses instruments such as the Notes. According to the Notice, the IRS and Treasury are considering whether a holder of an instrument such as the Notes should be required to accrue ordinary income on a current basis, regardless of whether any payments are made prior to maturity. It is not possible to determine what guidance the IRS and Treasury will ultimately issue, if any. Any such future guidance may affect the amount, timing and character of income, gain, or loss in respect of the Notes, possibly with retroactive effect.
The IRS and Treasury are also considering additional issues, including whether additional gain or loss from such instruments should be treated as ordinary or capital, whether foreign holders of such instruments should be subject to withholding tax on any deemed income accruals, whether Section 1260 of the Code, concerning certain “constructive ownership transactions,” generally applies or should generally apply to such instruments, and whether any of these determinations depend on the nature of the underlying asset.
In addition, proposed Treasury regulations require the accrual of income on a current basis for contingent payments made under certain notional principal contracts. The preamble to the regulations states that the “wait and see” method of accounting does not properly reflect the economic accrual of income on those contracts, and requires current accrual of income for some contracts already in existence. While the proposed regulations do not apply to prepaid forward contracts, the preamble to the proposed regulations expresses the view that similar timing issues exist in the case of prepaid forward contracts. If the IRS or Treasury publishes future guidance requiring current economic accrual for contingent payments on prepaid forward contracts, it is possible that you could be required to accrue income over the term of the Notes.
Because of the absence of authority regarding the appropriate tax characterization of the Notes, it is also possible that the IRS could seek to characterize the Notes in a manner that results in tax consequences that are different from those described above. For example, the IRS could possibly assert that any gain or loss that a holder may recognize at maturity or upon the sale or exchange of the Notes should be treated as ordinary gain or loss.
Because the Underlying is an index that periodically rebalances, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as a series of single financial contracts, each of which matures on the next rebalancing date. If the Notes were properly characterized in such a manner, a U.S. Holder would be treated as disposing of the Notes on each rebalancing date in return for new Notes that mature on the next rebalancing date, and a U.S. Holder would accordingly likely recognize capital gain or loss on each rebalancing date equal to the difference between the holder’s tax basis in the Notes (which would be adjusted to take into account any prior recognition of gain or loss) and the fair market value of the Notes on such date.
Except as discussed below, a Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax for amounts paid in respect of the Notes provided that the Non-U.S. Holder complies with applicable certification requirements and that the payment is not effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a U.S. trade or business. Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale or exchange of the Notes or their settlement at maturity may be subject to U.S. federal income tax if that Non-U.S. Holder is a non-resident alien individual and is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the sale, exchange, or settlement and certain other conditions are satisfied.
If a Non-U.S. Holder of the Notes is engaged in the conduct of a trade or business within the U.S. and if gain realized on the settlement at maturity, or upon sale or exchange of the Notes, is effectively connected with the conduct of such trade or business (and, if certain tax treaties apply, is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the Non-U.S. Holder in the U.S.), the Non-U.S. Holder, although exempt from U.S. federal withholding tax, generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on such gain on a net income basis in the same manner as if it were a U.S. Holder. Such Non-U.S. Holders should read the material under the heading “—U.S. Holders,” for a description of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning, and disposing of the Notes. In addition, if such Non-U.S. Holder is a foreign corporation, it may also be subject to a branch profits tax equal to 30% (or such lower rate provided by any applicable tax treaty) of a portion of its earnings and profits for the taxable year that are effectively connected with its conduct of a trade or business in the U.S., subject to certain adjustments.
A “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States and such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a Non-U.S. Holder. Under Treasury regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-17|
linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs reference an interest in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, IRS guidance provides that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2025. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, Non-U.S. Holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Underlying or the Notes, and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. Holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of the Underlying or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable paying agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.
As discussed above, alternative characterizations of the Notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes are possible. Should an alternative characterization, by reason of change or clarification of the law, by regulation or otherwise, cause payments as to the Notes to become subject to withholding tax, tax will be withheld at the applicable statutory rate. As discussed above, the IRS has indicated in the Notice that it is considering whether income in respect of instruments such as the Notes should be subject to withholding tax. Prospective Non-U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of such alternative characterizations.
U.S. Federal Estate Tax. Under current law, while the matter is not entirely clear, individual Non-U.S. Holders, and entities whose property is potentially includible in those individuals’ gross estates for U.S. federal estate tax purposes (for example, a trust funded by such an individual and with respect to which the individual has retained certain interests or powers), should note that, absent an applicable treaty benefit, a Note is likely to be treated as U.S. situs property, subject to U.S. federal estate tax. These individuals and entities should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal estate tax consequences of investing in a Note.
Backup Withholding and Information Reporting
Please see the discussion under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — General — Backup Withholding and Information Reporting” in the accompanying prospectus for a description of the applicability of the backup withholding and information reporting rules to payments made on the Notes.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-18|
Where You Can Find More Information
The terms and risks of the Notes are contained
in this pricing supplement and in the following related product supplement, prospectus supplement and prospectus, which can be accessed
at the following links:
EQUITY-1 dated December 30, 2022: |
|●||Series A MTN prospectus
supplement dated December 30, 2022 and prospectus dated December 30, 2022: |
This pricing supplement and the accompanying product supplement, prospectus supplement and prospectus have been filed as part of a registration statement with the SEC, which may, without cost, be accessed on the SEC website at www.sec.gov or obtained from BofAS by calling 1-800-294-1322. Before you invest, you should read this pricing supplement and the accompanying product supplement, prospectus supplement and prospectus for information about us, BAC and this offering. Any prior or contemporaneous oral statements and any other written materials you may have received are superseded by this pricing supplement and the accompanying product supplement, prospectus supplement and prospectus. Certain terms used but not defined in this pricing supplement have the meanings set forth in the accompanying product supplement or prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this document to “we,” “us,” “our,” or similar references are to BofA Finance, and not to BAC.
The Notes are our senior debt securities. Any payments on the Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by BAC. The Notes and the related guarantee are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or secured by collateral. The Notes will rank equally in right of payment with all of our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations, except obligations that are subject to any priorities or preferences by law. The related guarantee will rank equally in right of payment with all of BAC’s other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations, except obligations that are subject to any priorities or preferences by law, and senior to its subordinated obligations. Any payments due on the Notes, including any repayment of the principal amount, will be subject to the credit risk of BofA Finance, as issuer, and BAC, as guarantor.
|DUAL DIRECTIONAL BUFFERED NOTES | | PS-19|