Securitizations and Other Variable Interest Entities
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Securitizations and Other Variable Interest Entities||Securitizations and Other Variable Interest Entities
The Corporation utilizes VIEs in the ordinary course of business to support its own and its customers’ financing and investing needs. The Corporation routinely securitizes loans and debt securities using VIEs as a source of funding for the Corporation and as a means of transferring the economic risk of the loans or debt securities to third parties. The assets are transferred into a trust or other securitization vehicle such that the assets are legally isolated from the creditors of the Corporation and are not available to satisfy its obligations. These assets can only be used to settle obligations of the trust or other securitization vehicle. The Corporation also administers, structures or invests in other VIEs including CDOs, investment vehicles and other entities. For more information on the Corporation’s use of VIEs, see Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Principles.
The tables in this Note present the assets and liabilities of consolidated and unconsolidated VIEs at December 31, 2022 and 2021 in situations where the Corporation has continuing involvement with transferred assets or if the Corporation
otherwise has a variable interest in the VIE. The tables also present the Corporation’s maximum loss exposure at December 31, 2022 and 2021 resulting from its involvement with consolidated VIEs and unconsolidated VIEs in which the Corporation holds a variable interest. The Corporation’s maximum loss exposure is based on the unlikely event that all of the assets in the VIEs become worthless and incorporates not only potential losses associated with assets recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheet but also potential losses associated with off-balance sheet commitments, such as unfunded liquidity commitments and other contractual arrangements. The Corporation’s maximum loss exposure does not include losses previously recognized through write-downs of assets.
The Corporation invests in ABS issued by third-party VIEs with which it has no other form of involvement and enters into certain commercial lending arrangements that may also incorporate the use of VIEs, for example to hold collateral. These securities and loans are included in Note 4 – Securities or Note 5 – Outstanding Loans and Leases and Allowance for Credit Losses. In addition, the Corporation has used VIEs in connection with its funding activities.
The Corporation did not provide financial support to consolidated or unconsolidated VIEs during 2022, 2021 and 2020 that it was not previously contractually required to provide, nor does it intend to do so.
The Corporation had liquidity commitments, including written put options and collateral value guarantees, with certain unconsolidated VIEs of $978 million and $968 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021.
First-lien Mortgage Securitizations
As part of its mortgage banking activities, the Corporation securitizes a portion of the first-lien residential mortgage loans it originates or purchases from third parties, generally in the form of residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) guaranteed by government-sponsored enterprises, FNMA and FHLMC (collectively the GSEs), or the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) primarily in the case of FHA-
insured and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)-guaranteed mortgage loans. Securitization usually occurs in conjunction with or shortly after origination or purchase, and the Corporation may also securitize loans held in its residential mortgage portfolio. In addition, the Corporation may, from time to time, securitize commercial mortgages it originates or purchases from other entities. The Corporation typically services the loans it securitizes. Further, the Corporation may retain beneficial interests in the securitization trusts including senior and subordinate securities and equity tranches issued by the trusts. Except as described in Note 12 – Commitments and Contingencies, the Corporation does not provide guarantees or recourse to the securitization trusts other than standard representations and warranties.
The table below summarizes select information related to first-lien mortgage securitizations for 2022, 2021 and 2020.
(1)The Corporation transfers residential mortgage loans to securitizations sponsored primarily by the GSEs or GNMA in the normal course of business and primarily receives residential mortgage-backed securities in exchange. Substantially all of these securities are classified as Level 2 within the fair value hierarchy and are typically sold shortly after receipt.
(2)A majority of the first-lien residential mortgage loans securitized are initially classified as LHFS and accounted for under the fair value option. Gains recognized on these LHFS prior to securitization, which totaled $41 million, $121 million and $160 million net of hedges, during 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, are not included in the table above.
(3)The Corporation may have the option to repurchase delinquent loans out of securitization trusts, which reduces the amount of servicing advances it is required to make. The Corporation may also repurchase loans from securitization trusts to perform modifications. Repurchased loans include FHA-insured mortgages collateralizing GNMA securities.
The Corporation recognizes consumer MSRs from the sale or securitization of consumer real estate loans. The unpaid principal balance of loans serviced for investors, including residential mortgage and home equity loans, totaled $100.1 billion and $115.4 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. Servicing fee and ancillary fee income on serviced loans was $274 million, $392 million and $474 million during 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Servicing advances on serviced loans, including loans serviced for others and loans held for investment, were $1.6 billion and $2.0 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. For more information on MSRs, see Note 20 – Fair Value Measurements.
During 2022, the Corporation deconsolidated agency residential mortgage securitization trusts with total assets of $784 million, with no significant deconsolidations in 2021.
During 2020, the Corporation completed the sale of $9.3 billion of consumer real estate loans through GNMA loan securitizations. As part of the securitizations, the Corporation retained $8.4 billion of MBS, which are classified as debt securities carried at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Total gains on loan sales of $704 million were recorded in other income in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
The following table summarizes select information related to first-lien mortgage securitization trusts in which the Corporation held a variable interest at December 31, 2022 and 2021.
(1)Maximum loss exposure includes obligations under loss-sharing reinsurance and other arrangements for non-agency residential mortgage and commercial mortgage securitizations, but excludes the reserve for representations and warranties obligations and corporate guarantees and also excludes servicing advances and other servicing rights and obligations. For more information, see Note 12 – Commitments and Contingencies and Note 20 – Fair Value Measurements.
(2)Principal balance outstanding includes loans where the Corporation was the transferor to securitization VIEs with which it has continuing involvement, which may include servicing the loans.
Other Asset-backed Securitizations
The table below summarizes select information related to home equity, credit card and other asset-backed VIEs in which the Corporation held a variable interest at December 31, 2022 and 2021.
(1)For unconsolidated home equity loan VIEs, the maximum loss exposure includes outstanding trust certificates issued by trusts in rapid amortization, net of recorded reserves. For both consolidated and unconsolidated home equity loan VIEs, the maximum loss exposure excludes the reserve for representations and warranties obligations and corporate guarantees. For more information, see Note 12 – Commitments and Contingencies.
(2)At December 31, 2022 and 2021, loans and leases in the consolidated credit card trust included $3.3 billion and $4.3 billion of seller’s interest.
(3)The retained senior securities were valued using quoted market prices or observable market inputs (Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy).
Home Equity Loans
The Corporation retains interests, primarily senior securities, in home equity securitization trusts to which it transferred home equity loans. In addition, the Corporation may be obligated to provide subordinate funding to the trusts during a rapid amortization event. This obligation is included in the maximum loss exposure in the preceding table. The charges that will ultimately be recorded as a result of the rapid amortization events depend on the undrawn portion of the home equity lines of credit, performance of the loans, the amount of subsequent draws and the timing of related cash flows.
Credit Card Securitizations
The Corporation securitizes originated and purchased credit card loans. The Corporation’s continuing involvement with the securitization trust includes servicing the receivables, retaining an undivided interest (seller’s interest) in the receivables, and holding certain retained interests, including subordinate interests in accrued interest and fees on the securitized receivables and cash reserve accounts.
During 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Corporation issued new senior debt securities to third-party investors from the credit card securitization trust totaling $2.3 billion, $1.0 billion, and $1.0 billion, respectively.
At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation held subordinate securities issued by the credit card securitization trust with a notional principal amount of $6.7 billion and $6.5 billion. These securities serve as a form of credit enhancement to the senior debt securities and have a stated interest rate of zero percent. During 2022, 2021 and 2020, the credit card securitization trust issued $363 million, $161 million and $161 million, respectively, of these subordinate securities.
The Corporation transfers securities, typically MBS, into resecuritization VIEs generally at the request of customers seeking securities with specific characteristics. Generally, there are no significant ongoing activities performed in a resecuritization trust, and no single investor has the unilateral ability to liquidate the trust.
The Corporation resecuritized $21.8 billion, $28.9 billion and $39.0 billion of securities during 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Securities transferred into resecuritization VIEs were measured at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in market making and similar activities prior to the resecuritization and, accordingly, no gain or loss on sale was recorded. Securities received from the resecuritization VIEs were recognized at their fair value of $2.4 billion, $2.2 billion and $6.1 billion during 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. In 2022 and 2021, substantially all of the securities were classified as trading account assets. All of the securities received as resecuritization proceeds during 2020 were classified as trading account assets. Of the securities received as resecuritization proceeds during 2020, $2.4 billion, $2.1 billion and $1.7 billion were classified as trading account assets, debt securities carried at fair value and HTM securities, respectively. Substantially all of the trading account securities carried at fair value were categorized as Level 2 within the fair value hierarchy.
Municipal Bond Trusts
The Corporation administers municipal bond trusts that hold highly-rated, long-term, fixed-rate municipal bonds. The trusts obtain financing by issuing floating-rate trust certificates that reprice on a weekly or other short-term basis to third-party investors.
The Corporation’s liquidity commitments to unconsolidated municipal bond trusts, including those for which the Corporation was transferor, totaled $2.5 billion and $4.1 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. The weighted-average remaining life of bonds held in the trusts at December 31, 2022 was 8.7 years. There were no significant write-downs or downgrades of assets or issuers during 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Other Variable Interest Entities
The table below summarizes select information related to other VIEs in which the Corporation held a variable interest at December 31, 2022 and 2021.
Customer VIEs include credit-linked, equity-linked and commodity-linked note VIEs, repackaging VIEs and asset acquisition VIEs, which are typically created on behalf of customers who wish to obtain market or credit exposure to a specific company, index, commodity or financial instrument.
The Corporation’s maximum loss exposure to consolidated and unconsolidated customer VIEs totaled $914 million and $2.9 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021, including the notional amount of derivatives to which the Corporation is a counterparty, net of losses previously recorded, and the Corporation’s investment, if any, in securities issued by the VIEs.
Collateralized Debt Obligation VIEs
The Corporation receives fees for structuring CDO VIEs, which hold diversified pools of fixed-income securities, typically corporate debt or ABS, which the CDO VIEs fund by issuing multiple tranches of debt and equity securities. CDOs are generally managed by third-party portfolio managers. The Corporation typically transfers assets to these CDOs, holds securities issued by the CDOs and may be a derivative counterparty to the CDOs. The Corporation’s maximum loss exposure to consolidated and unconsolidated CDOs totaled $197 million and $235 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021.
The Corporation sponsors, invests in or provides financing, which may be in connection with the sale of assets, to a variety of investment VIEs that hold loans, real estate, debt securities or other financial instruments and are designed to provide the desired investment profile to investors or the Corporation. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation’s consolidated investment VIEs had total assets of $854 million and $1.0 billion. The Corporation also held investments in unconsolidated VIEs with total assets of $12.2 billion and $7.1 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. The Corporation’s maximum loss exposure associated with both consolidated and unconsolidated investment VIEs totaled $2.4 billion and $2.0 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021 comprised primarily of on-balance sheet assets less non-recourse liabilities.
Leveraged Lease Trusts
The Corporation’s net investment in consolidated leveraged lease trusts totaled $1.2 billion and $1.5 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. The trusts hold long-lived equipment such as rail cars, power generation and distribution equipment, and commercial aircraft. The Corporation structures the trusts and holds a significant residual interest. The net investment represents the Corporation’s maximum loss exposure to the trusts in the unlikely event that the leveraged lease investments become worthless. Debt issued by the leveraged lease trusts is non-recourse to the Corporation.
Tax Credit VIEs
The Corporation holds investments in unconsolidated limited partnerships and similar entities that construct, own and operate affordable housing, wind and solar projects. An unrelated third party is typically the general partner or managing member and has control over the significant activities of the VIE. As an investor, tax credits associated with the investments in these entities are allocated to the Corporation, as provided by the U.S. Internal Revenue Code and related regulations, and are recognized as income tax benefits in the Corporation’s Consolidated Statement of Income in the year they are earned,
which varies based on the type of investments. Tax credits from environmental, social and governance (ESG) investments in affordable housing are recognized ratably over a term of up to 10 years, and tax credits from wind and solar energy investments are recognized either at inception for transactions electing Investment Tax Credits (ITCs) or as energy is produced for transactions electing Production Tax Credits (PTCs), which is generally up to a 10-year time period. The volume and types of investments held by the Corporation will influence the amount of tax credits recognized each period. The maximum loss exposure included in the Other VIEs table was $28.8 billion and $25.7 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. In addition to that amount, the Corporation had unfunded capital contributions for renewable energy investments of $1.9 billion and $1.0 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. The capital contributions are contingent on various conditions precedent to funding over the next two years. The Corporation’s risk of loss is generally mitigated by policies requiring that the project qualify for the expected tax credits prior to making its investment.
The Corporation’s investments in affordable housing partnerships, which are reported in other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, totaled $14.1 billion and $12.6 billion, including unfunded commitments to provide capital contributions of $6.6 billion and $5.8 billion, at December 31, 2022 and 2021. The unfunded commitments are expected to be paid over the next five years. During 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Corporation recognized tax credits and other tax benefits of $1.5 billion, $1.3 billion and $1.2 billion and reported pretax losses in other income of $1.2 billion, $1.1 billion and $1.0 billion. These tax credits are recognized as part of the Corporation’s annual effective tax rate used to determine tax expense in a given quarter. The Corporation may be asked to invest additional amounts to support a troubled affordable housing project. Such additional investments have not been and are not expected to be significant.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for a variable interest entity (VIE), including but not limited to, judgments and assumptions in determining whether to consolidate and in identifying the primary beneficiary, gain (loss) recognized on the initial consolidation of the VIE, terms of arrangements, amounts and classification of the VIE's assets and liabilities, and the entity's maximum exposure to loss.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef