|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities Disclosure [Abstract]|
Derivatives are entered into on behalf of customers, for trading or to support risk management activities. Derivatives used in risk management activities include derivatives that may or may not be designated in qualifying hedge accounting relationships. Derivatives that are not designated in qualifying hedge accounting relationships are referred to as other risk management derivatives. For more information on the Corporation’s derivatives and hedging activities, see Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Principles. The following tables present derivative instruments included on the Consolidated Balance Sheet in derivative assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017 and 2016. Balances are presented on a gross basis, prior to the application of counterparty and cash collateral netting. Total derivative assets and liabilities are adjusted on an aggregate basis to take into consideration the effects of legally enforceable master netting agreements and have been reduced by the cash collateral received or paid.
Offsetting of Derivatives
The Corporation enters into International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (ISDA) master netting agreements or similar agreements with substantially all of the Corporation’s derivative counterparties. Where legally enforceable, these master netting agreements give the Corporation, in the event of default by the counterparty, the right to liquidate securities held as collateral and to offset receivables and payables with the same counterparty. For purposes of the Consolidated Balance Sheet, the Corporation offsets derivative assets and liabilities and cash collateral held with the same counterparty where it has such a legally enforceable master netting agreement.
The following table presents derivative instruments included in derivative assets and liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2017 and 2016 by primary risk (e.g., interest rate risk) and the platform, where applicable, on which these derivatives are transacted. Balances are presented on a gross basis, prior to the application of counterparty and cash collateral netting. Total gross derivative assets and liabilities are adjusted on an aggregate basis to take into consideration the effects of legally enforceable master netting agreements which includes reducing the balance for counterparty netting and cash collateral received or paid.
For more information on offsetting of securities financing agreements, see Note 10 – Federal Funds Sold or Purchased, Securities Financing Agreements and Short-term Borrowings.
ALM and Risk Management Derivatives
The Corporation’s ALM and risk management activities include the use of derivatives to mitigate risk to the Corporation including derivatives designated in qualifying hedge accounting relationships and derivatives used in other risk management activities. Interest rate, foreign exchange, equity, commodity and credit contracts are utilized in the Corporation’s ALM and risk management activities.
The Corporation maintains an overall interest rate risk management strategy that incorporates the use of interest rate contracts, which are generally non-leveraged generic interest rate and basis swaps, options, futures and forwards, to minimize significant fluctuations in earnings caused by interest rate volatility. The Corporation’s goal is to manage interest rate sensitivity and volatility so that movements in interest rates do not significantly adversely affect earnings or capital. As a result of interest rate fluctuations, hedged fixed-rate assets and liabilities appreciate or depreciate in fair value. Gains or losses on the derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged fixed-rate assets and liabilities are expected to substantially offset this unrealized appreciation or depreciation.
Market risk, including interest rate risk, can be substantial in the mortgage business. Market risk in the mortgage business is the risk that values of mortgage assets or revenues will be adversely affected by changes in market conditions such as interest rate movements. To mitigate the interest rate risk in mortgage banking production income, the Corporation utilizes forward loan sale commitments and other derivative instruments, including purchased options, and certain debt securities. The Corporation also utilizes derivatives such as interest rate options, interest rate swaps, forward settlement contracts and eurodollar futures to hedge certain market risks of MSRs. For more information on MSRs, see Note 20 – Fair Value Measurements.
The Corporation uses foreign exchange contracts to manage the foreign exchange risk associated with certain foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities, as well as the Corporation’s investments in non-U.S. subsidiaries. Foreign exchange contracts, which include spot and forward contracts, represent agreements to exchange the currency of one country for the currency of another country at an agreed-upon price on an agreed-upon settlement date. Exposure to loss on these contracts will increase or decrease over their respective lives as currency exchange and interest rates fluctuate.
The Corporation purchases credit derivatives to manage credit risk related to certain funded and unfunded credit exposures. Credit derivatives include credit default swaps (CDS), total return swaps and swaptions. These derivatives are recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in other income.
Derivatives Designated as Accounting Hedges
The Corporation uses various types of interest rate, commodity and foreign exchange derivative contracts to protect against changes in the fair value of its assets and liabilities due to fluctuations in interest rates, commodity prices and exchange rates (fair value hedges). The Corporation also uses these types of contracts and equity derivatives to protect against changes in the cash flows of its assets and liabilities, and other forecasted transactions (cash flow hedges). The Corporation hedges its net investment in consolidated non-U.S. operations determined to have functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar using forward exchange contracts and cross-currency basis swaps, and by issuing foreign currency-denominated debt (net investment hedges).
Fair Value Hedges
The following table summarizes information related to fair value hedges for 2017, 2016 and 2015, including hedges of interest rate risk on long-term debt that were acquired as part of a business combination and redesignated at that time. At redesignation, the fair value of the derivatives was positive. As the derivatives mature, the fair value will approach zero. As a result, ineffectiveness will occur and the fair value changes in the derivatives and the long-term debt being hedged may be directionally the same in certain scenarios. Based on a regression analysis, the derivatives continue to be highly effective at offsetting changes in the fair value of the long-term debt attributable to interest rate risk.
Cash Flow and Net Investment Hedges
The table below summarizes certain information related to cash flow hedges and net investment hedges for 2017, 2016, and 2015. Of the $831 million after-tax net loss ($1.3 billion pre-tax) on derivatives in accumulated OCI at December 31, 2017, $130 million after-tax ($208 million pre-tax) is expected to be reclassified into earnings in the next 12 months. These net losses reclassified into earnings are expected to primarily reduce net interest income related to the respective hedged items. Amounts related to price risk on restricted stock awards reclassified from accumulated OCI are recorded in personnel expense. For terminated cash flow hedges, the time period over which the majority of the forecasted transactions are hedged is approximately seven years, with a maximum length of time for certain forecasted transactions of 19 years.
Other Risk Management Derivatives
Other risk management derivatives are used by the Corporation to reduce certain risk exposures. These derivatives are not qualifying accounting hedges because either they did not qualify for or were not designated as accounting hedges. The table below presents gains (losses) on these derivatives for 2017, 2016 and 2015. These gains (losses) are largely offset by the income or expense that is recorded on the hedged item.
Transfers of Financial Assets with Risk Retained through Derivatives
The Corporation enters into certain transactions involving the transfer of financial assets that are accounted for as sales where substantially all of the economic exposure to the transferred financial assets is retained through derivatives (e.g., interest rate and/or credit), but the Corporation does not retain control over the assets transferred. Through December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Corporation transferred $6.0 billion and $6.6 billion of non-U.S. government-guaranteed MBS to a third-party trust and retained economic exposure to the transferred assets through derivative contracts. In connection with these transfers, the Corporation received gross cash proceeds of $6.0 billion and $6.6 billion at the transfer dates. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the fair value of the transferred securities was $6.1 billion and $6.3 billion. Derivative assets of $46 million and $43 million and liabilities of $3 million and $10 million were recorded at December 31, 2017 and 2016, and are included in credit derivatives in the derivative instruments table on page 113.
Sales and Trading Revenue
The Corporation enters into trading derivatives to facilitate client transactions and to manage risk exposures arising from trading account assets and liabilities. It is the Corporation’s policy to include these derivative instruments in its trading activities which include derivatives and non-derivative cash instruments. The resulting risk from these derivatives is managed on a portfolio basis as part of the Corporation’s Global Markets business segment. The related sales and trading revenue generated within Global Markets is recorded in various income statement line items including trading account profits and net interest income as well as other revenue categories.
Sales and trading revenue includes changes in the fair value and realized gains and losses on the sales of trading and other assets, net interest income, and fees primarily from commissions on equity securities. Revenue is generated by the difference in the client price for an instrument and the price at which the trading desk can execute the trade in the dealer market. For equity securities, commissions related to purchases and sales are recorded in the “Other” column in the Sales and Trading Revenue table. Changes in the fair value of these securities are included in trading account profits. For debt securities, revenue, with the exception of interest associated with the debt securities, is typically included in trading account profits. Unlike commissions for equity securities, the initial revenue related to broker-dealer services for debt securities is typically included in the pricing of the instrument rather than being charged through separate fee arrangements. Therefore, this revenue is recorded in trading account profits as part of the initial mark to fair value. For derivatives, the majority of revenue is included in trading account profits. In transactions where the Corporation acts as agent, which include exchange-traded futures and options, fees are recorded in other income.
The table below, which includes both derivatives and non-derivative cash instruments, identifies the amounts in the respective income statement line items attributable to the Corporation’s sales and trading revenue in Global Markets, categorized by primary risk, for 2017, 2016 and 2015. The difference between total trading account profits in the following table and in the Consolidated Statement of Income represents trading activities in business segments other than Global Markets. This table includes DVA and funding valuation adjustment (FVA) gains (losses). Global Markets results in Note 23 – Business Segment Information are presented on a fully taxable-equivalent (FTE) basis. The following table is not presented on an FTE basis.
The Corporation enters into credit derivatives primarily to facilitate client transactions and to manage credit risk exposures. Credit derivatives derive value based on an underlying third-party referenced obligation or a portfolio of referenced obligations and generally require the Corporation, as the seller of credit protection, to make payments to a buyer upon the occurrence of a pre-defined credit event. Such credit events generally include bankruptcy of the referenced credit entity and failure to pay under the obligation, as well as acceleration of indebtedness and payment repudiation or moratorium. For credit derivatives based on a portfolio of referenced credits or credit indices, the Corporation may not be required to make payment until a specified amount of loss has occurred and/or may only be required to make payment up to a specified amount.
Credit derivative instruments where the Corporation is the seller of credit protection and their expiration at December 31, 2017 and 2016 are summarized in the following table.
Credit derivatives are classified as investment and non-investment grade based on the credit quality of the underlying referenced obligation. The Corporation considers ratings of BBB- or higher as investment grade. Non-investment grade includes non-rated credit derivative instruments. The Corporation discloses internal categorizations of investment grade and non-investment grade consistent with how risk is managed for these instruments.
The notional amount represents the maximum amount payable by the Corporation for most credit derivatives. However, the Corporation does not monitor its exposure to credit derivatives based solely on the notional amount because this measure does not take into consideration the probability of occurrence. As such, the notional amount is not a reliable indicator of the Corporation’s exposure to these contracts. Instead, a risk framework is used to define risk tolerances and establish limits so that certain credit risk-related losses occur within acceptable, predefined limits.
Credit-related notes in the table above include investments in securities issued by CDO, collateralized loan obligation (CLO) and credit-linked note vehicles. These instruments are primarily classified as trading securities. The carrying value of these instruments equals the Corporation’s maximum exposure to loss. The Corporation is not obligated to make any payments to the entities under the terms of the securities owned.
Credit-related Contingent Features and Collateral
The Corporation executes the majority of its derivative contracts in the OTC market with large, international financial institutions, including broker-dealers and, to a lesser degree, with a variety of non-financial companies. A significant majority of the derivative transactions are executed on a daily margin basis. Therefore, events such as a credit rating downgrade (depending on the ultimate rating level) or a breach of credit covenants would typically require an increase in the amount of collateral required of the counterparty, where applicable, and/or allow the Corporation to take additional protective measures such as early termination of all trades. Further, as previously discussed on page 114, the Corporation enters into legally enforceable master netting agreements which reduce risk by permitting closeout and netting of transactions with the same counterparty upon the occurrence of certain events.
A majority of the Corporation’s derivative contracts contain credit risk-related contingent features, primarily in the form of ISDA
master netting agreements and credit support documentation that enhance the creditworthiness of these instruments compared to other obligations of the respective counterparty with whom the Corporation has transacted. These contingent features may be for the benefit of the Corporation as well as its counterparties with respect to changes in the Corporation’s creditworthiness and the mark-to-market exposure under the derivative transactions. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Corporation held cash and securities collateral of $77.2 billion and $85.5 billion, and posted cash and securities collateral of $59.2 billion and $71.1 billion in the normal course of business under derivative agreements, excluding cross-product margining agreements where clients are permitted to margin on a net basis for both derivative and secured financing arrangements.
In connection with certain OTC derivative contracts and other trading agreements, the Corporation can be required to provide additional collateral or to terminate transactions with certain counterparties in the event of a downgrade of the senior debt ratings of the Corporation or certain subsidiaries. The amount of
additional collateral required depends on the contract and is usually a fixed incremental amount and/or the market value of the exposure.
At December 31, 2017, the amount of collateral, calculated based on the terms of the contracts, that the Corporation and certain subsidiaries could be required to post to counterparties but had not yet posted to counterparties was approximately $3.2 billion, including $2.1 billion for Bank of America, National Association (Bank of America, N.A. or BANA).
Some counterparties are currently able to unilaterally terminate certain contracts, or the Corporation or certain subsidiaries may be required to take other action such as find a suitable replacement or obtain a guarantee. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the liability recorded for these derivative contracts was not significant.
The following table presents the amount of additional collateral that would have been contractually required by derivative contracts and other trading agreements at December 31, 2017 if the rating agencies had downgraded their long-term senior debt ratings for the Corporation or certain subsidiaries by one incremental notch and by an additional second incremental notch.
The table below presents the derivative liabilities that would be subject to unilateral termination by counterparties and the amounts of collateral that would have been contractually required at December 31, 2017 if the long-term senior debt ratings for the Corporation or certain subsidiaries had been lower by one incremental notch and by an additional second incremental notch.
Valuation Adjustments on Derivatives
The Corporation records credit risk valuation adjustments on derivatives in order to properly reflect the credit quality of the counterparties and its own credit quality. The Corporation calculates valuation adjustments on derivatives based on a modeled expected exposure that incorporates current market risk factors. The exposure also takes into consideration credit mitigants such as enforceable master netting agreements and collateral. CDS spread data is used to estimate the default probabilities and severities that are applied to the exposures. Where no observable credit default data is available for counterparties, the Corporation uses proxies and other market data to estimate default probabilities and severity.
Valuation adjustments on derivatives are affected by changes in market spreads, non-credit related market factors such as interest rate and currency changes that affect the expected exposure, and other factors like changes in collateral arrangements and partial payments. Credit spreads and non-credit factors can move independently. For example, for an interest rate swap, changes in interest rates may increase the expected exposure, which would increase the counterparty credit valuation adjustment (CVA). Independently, counterparty credit spreads may tighten, which would result in an offsetting decrease to CVA.
The Corporation enters into risk management activities to offset market driven exposures. The Corporation often hedges the counterparty spread risk in CVA with CDS. The Corporation hedges other market risks in both CVA and DVA primarily with currency and interest rate swaps. In certain instances, the net-of-hedge amounts in the table below move in the same direction as the gross amount or may move in the opposite direction. This movement is a consequence of the complex interaction of the risks being hedged, resulting in limitations in the ability to perfectly hedge all of the market exposures at all times.
The table below presents CVA, DVA and FVA gains (losses) on derivatives, which are recorded in trading account profits, on a gross and net of hedge basis for 2017, 2016 and 2015. CVA gains reduce the cumulative CVA thereby increasing the derivative assets balance. DVA gains increase the cumulative DVA thereby decreasing the derivative liabilities balance. CVA and DVA losses have the opposite impact. FVA gains related to derivative assets reduce the cumulative FVA thereby increasing the derivative assets balance. FVA gains related to derivative liabilities increase the cumulative FVA thereby decreasing the derivative liabilities balance. FVA losses have the opposite impact.
The entire disclosure for derivative instruments and hedging activities including, but not limited to, risk management strategies, non-hedging derivative instruments, assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and methodologies and assumptions used in determining the amounts.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef