|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2018
|Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities Disclosure [Abstract]|
Derivatives are entered into on behalf of customers, for trading or to support risk management activities. Derivatives used in risk management activities include derivatives that may or may not be designated in qualifying hedge accounting relationships. Derivatives that are not designated in qualifying hedge accounting relationships are referred to as other risk management derivatives. For more information on the Corporation’s derivatives and hedging activities, see Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Principles to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Corporation’s 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following tables present derivative instruments included on the Consolidated Balance Sheet in derivative assets and liabilities at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017. Balances are presented on a gross basis, prior to the application of counterparty and cash collateral netting. Total derivative assets and liabilities are adjusted on an aggregate basis to take into consideration the effects of legally enforceable master netting agreements and have been reduced by cash collateral received or paid.
Offsetting of Derivatives
The Corporation enters into International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (ISDA) master netting agreements or similar agreements with substantially all of the Corporation’s derivative counterparties. Where legally enforceable, these master netting agreements give the Corporation, in the event of default by the counterparty, the right to liquidate securities held as collateral and to offset receivables and payables with the same counterparty. For purposes of the Consolidated Balance Sheet, the Corporation offsets derivative assets and liabilities and cash collateral held with the same counterparty where it has such a legally enforceable master netting agreement.
The following table presents derivative instruments included in derivative assets and liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 by primary risk (e.g., interest rate risk) and the platform, where applicable, on which these derivatives are transacted. Balances are presented on a gross basis, prior to the application of counterparty and cash collateral netting. Total gross derivative assets and liabilities are adjusted on an aggregate basis to take into consideration the effects of legally enforceable master netting agreements which include reducing the balance for counterparty netting and cash collateral received or paid.
For more information on offsetting of securities financing agreements, see Note 9 – Federal Funds Sold or Purchased, Securities Financing Agreements, Short-term Borrowings and Restricted Cash.
ALM and Risk Management Derivatives
The Corporation’s asset and liability management (ALM) and risk management activities include the use of derivatives to mitigate risk to the Corporation including derivatives designated in qualifying hedge accounting relationships and derivatives used in other risk management activities. For additional information, see Note 2 – Derivatives to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Corporation’s 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Derivatives Designated as Accounting Hedges
The Corporation uses various types of interest rate and foreign exchange derivative contracts to protect against changes in the fair value of its assets and liabilities due to fluctuations in interest rates and exchange rates (fair value hedges). The Corporation also
uses these types of contracts and equity derivatives to protect against changes in the cash flows of its assets and liabilities, and other forecasted transactions (cash flow hedges). The Corporation hedges its net investment in consolidated non-U.S. operations determined to have functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar using forward exchange contracts and cross-currency basis swaps, and by issuing foreign currency-denominated debt (net investment hedges).
Effective January 1, 2018, the Corporation early adopted the new hedge accounting standard on a prospective basis and, accordingly, prior-period hedge accounting disclosures were not conformed to the current-period presentation. For more information, see Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Principles.
Fair Value Hedges
The table below summarizes information related to fair value hedges for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017.
The table below summarizes the carrying value of hedged assets and liabilities that are designated and qualifying in fair value hedging relationships along with the cumulative amount of fair value hedging adjustments included in the carrying value that have been recorded in the current hedging relationships. These fair value hedging adjustments are open basis adjustments that are not subject to amortization as long as the hedging relationship remains designated.
At March 31, 2018, the cumulative fair value adjustments remaining on long-term debt and available-for-sale (AFS) securities from discontinued hedging relationships were an increase of $1.1 billion and a decrease of $42 million, respectively, which are being amortized over the remaining contractual life of the de-designated hedged items.
Cash Flow and Net Investment Hedges
The table below summarizes certain information related to cash flow hedges and net investment hedges for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. Of the $1.2 billion after-tax net loss ($1.6 billion pretax) on derivatives in accumulated OCI at March 31, 2018, $269 million after-tax ($354 million pretax) is expected to be reclassified into earnings in the next 12 months. These net losses reclassified into earnings are expected to primarily reduce net interest income related to the respective hedged items. For terminated cash flow hedges, the time period over which the majority of the forecasted transactions are hedged is approximately seven years, with a maximum length of time for certain forecasted transactions of 18 years.
Other Risk Management Derivatives
Other risk management derivatives are used by the Corporation to reduce certain risk exposures by economically hedging various assets and liabilities. The gains and losses on these derivatives are recognized in other income. The table below presents gains (losses) on these derivatives for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. These gains (losses) are largely offset by the income or expense that is recorded on the hedged item.
Transfers of Financial Assets with Risk Retained through Derivatives
The Corporation enters into certain transactions involving the transfer of financial assets that are accounted for as sales where substantially all of the economic exposure to the transferred financial assets is retained through derivatives (e.g., interest rate and/or credit), but the Corporation does not retain control over the assets transferred. At March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Corporation had transferred $6.2 billion and $6.0 billion of non-U.S. government-guaranteed mortgage-backed securities (MBS) to a third-party trust and retained economic exposure to the
transferred assets through derivative contracts. In connection with these transfers, the Corporation received gross cash proceeds of $6.2 billion and $6.0 billion at the transfer dates. At both March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the fair value of the transferred securities was $6.1 billion. At March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, derivative assets of $48 million and $46 million and liabilities of $3 million for both periods were recorded and are included in credit derivatives in the derivative instruments table on page 59.
Sales and Trading Revenue
The Corporation enters into trading derivatives to facilitate client transactions and to manage risk exposures arising from trading account assets and liabilities. It is the Corporation’s policy to include these derivative instruments in its trading activities which include derivatives and non-derivative cash instruments. The resulting risk from these derivatives is managed on a portfolio basis as part of the Corporation’s Global Markets business segment. For more information on sales and trading revenue, see Note 2 – Derivatives to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Corporation’s 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table, which includes both derivatives and non-derivative cash instruments, identifies the amounts in the respective income statement line items attributable to the Corporation’s sales and trading revenue in Global Markets, categorized by primary risk, for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. The difference between total trading account profits in the following table and in the Consolidated Statement of Income represents trading activities in business segments other than Global Markets. This table includes debit valuation adjustment (DVA) and funding valuation adjustment (FVA) gains (losses). Global Markets results in Note 17 – Business Segment Information are presented on a fully taxable-equivalent (FTE) basis. The table below is not presented on an FTE basis.
The Corporation enters into credit derivatives primarily to facilitate client transactions and to manage credit risk exposures. Credit derivatives derive value based on an underlying third-party referenced obligation or a portfolio of referenced obligations and generally require the Corporation, as the seller of credit protection, to make payments to a buyer upon the occurrence of a predefined credit event. Such credit events generally include bankruptcy of the referenced credit entity and failure to pay under the obligation, as well as acceleration of indebtedness and payment repudiation or moratorium. For credit derivatives based on a portfolio of referenced credits or credit indices, the Corporation may not be required to make payment until a specified amount of loss has occurred and/or may only be required to make payment up to a specified amount.
Credit derivative instruments where the Corporation is the seller of credit protection and their expiration at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 are summarized in the table below.
Credit derivatives are classified as investment and non-investment grade based on the credit quality of the underlying referenced obligation. The Corporation considers ratings of BBB- or higher as investment grade. Non-investment grade includes non-rated credit derivative instruments. The Corporation discloses internal categorizations of investment grade and non-investment grade consistent with how risk is managed for these instruments.
The notional amount represents the maximum amount payable by the Corporation for most credit derivatives. However, the Corporation does not monitor its exposure to credit derivatives based solely on the notional amount because this measure does not take into consideration the probability of occurrence. As such, the notional amount is not a reliable indicator of the Corporation’s exposure to these contracts. Instead, a risk framework is used to define risk tolerances and establish limits so that certain credit risk-related losses occur within acceptable, predefined limits.
Credit-related notes in the table above include investments in securities issued by collateralized debt obligation (CDO), collateralized loan obligation and credit-linked note vehicles. These instruments are primarily classified as trading securities. The carrying value of these instruments equals the Corporation’s maximum exposure to loss. The Corporation is not obligated to make any payments to the entities under the terms of the securities owned.
Credit-related Contingent Features and Collateral
A majority of the Corporation’s derivative contracts contain credit risk-related contingent features, primarily in the form of ISDA master netting agreements and credit support documentation that enhance the creditworthiness of these instruments compared to other obligations of the respective counterparty with whom the Corporation has transacted. These contingent features may be for the benefit of the Corporation as well as its counterparties with respect to changes in the Corporation’s creditworthiness and the mark-to-market exposure under the derivative transactions. At March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Corporation held cash and securities collateral of $90.4 billion and $77.2 billion, and posted cash and securities collateral of $58.3 billion and $59.2 billion in the normal course of business under derivative agreements, excluding cross-product margining agreements where clients are permitted to margin on a net basis for both derivative and secured financing arrangements.
In connection with certain OTC derivative contracts and other trading agreements, the Corporation can be required to provide additional collateral or to terminate transactions with certain counterparties in the event of a downgrade of the senior debt ratings of the Corporation or certain subsidiaries. The amount of
additional collateral required depends on the contract and is usually a fixed incremental amount and/or the market value of the exposure. For more information on credit-related contingent features and collateral, see Note 2 – Derivatives to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Corporation’s 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
At March 31, 2018, the amount of collateral, calculated based on the terms of the contracts, that the Corporation and certain subsidiaries could be required to post to counterparties but had not yet posted to counterparties was $2.2 billion, including $1.1 billion for Bank of America, National Association (Bank of America, N.A. or BANA).
Some counterparties are currently able to unilaterally terminate certain contracts, or the Corporation or certain subsidiaries may be required to take other action such as find a suitable replacement or obtain a guarantee. At March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the liability recorded for these derivative contracts was not significant.
The table below presents the amount of additional collateral that would have been contractually required by derivative contracts and other trading agreements at March 31, 2018 if the rating agencies had downgraded their long-term senior debt ratings for the Corporation or certain subsidiaries by one incremental notch and by an additional second incremental notch.
The table below presents the derivative liabilities that would be subject to unilateral termination by counterparties and the amounts of collateral that would have been contractually required at March 31, 2018 if the long-term senior debt ratings for the Corporation or certain subsidiaries had been lower by one incremental notch and by an additional second incremental notch.
Valuation Adjustments on Derivatives
The table below presents credit valuation adjustment (CVA), DVA and FVA gains (losses) on derivatives, which are recorded in trading account profits, on a gross and net of hedge basis for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. For more information on the valuation adjustments on derivatives, see Note 2 – Derivatives to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Corporation’s 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The entire disclosure for derivative instruments and hedging activities including, but not limited to, risk management strategies, non-hedging derivative instruments, assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and methodologies and assumptions used in determining the amounts.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef