Summary of Significant Accounting Principles
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Principles||
Summary of Significant Accounting Principles
Bank of America Corporation, a bank holding company and a financial holding company, provides a diverse range of financial services and products throughout the U.S. and in certain international markets. The term “the Corporation” as used herein may refer to Bank of America Corporation, individually, Bank of America Corporation and its subsidiaries, or certain of Bank of America Corporation’s subsidiaries or affiliates.
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Corporation and its majority-owned subsidiaries and those variable interest entities (VIEs) where the Corporation is the primary beneficiary. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Results of operations of acquired companies are included from the dates of acquisition and for VIEs, from the dates that the Corporation became the primary beneficiary. Assets held in an agency or fiduciary capacity are not included in the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Corporation accounts for investments in companies for which it owns a voting interest and for which it has the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financing decisions using the equity method of accounting. These investments are included in other assets. Equity method investments are subject to impairment testing, and the Corporation’s proportionate share of income or loss is included in other income.
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and disclosures. Realized results could materially differ from those estimates and assumptions. Certain prior-period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current-period presentation.
New Accounting Standards
Effective January 1, 2018, the Corporation adopted the following new accounting standards on a prospective basis.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Corporation adopted the following new accounting standards on a retrospective basis, resulting in restatement of all prior periods presented in the Consolidated Statement of Income and the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. The changes in presentation are not material to the individual line items affected.
On January 1, 2019, the Corporation adopted the new accounting standards that require lessees to recognize operating leases on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as right-of-use assets and lease liabilities based on the value of the discounted future lease payments. Lessor accounting is largely unchanged. Expanded disclosures about the nature and terms of lease agreements will be required prospectively. The Corporation elected to apply certain transition elections which allow for the continued application of the previous determination of whether a contract that existed at transition is or contains a lease, the associated lease classification, and the recognition of leases on January 1, 2019 through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings, with no adjustment to comparative prior periods presented. Upon adoption, the Corporation recognized right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $9.7 billion. Adoption of the standard did not have a significant effect on the Corporation’s regulatory capital measures.
Accounting Standards Issued and Not Yet Adopted
Accounting for Financial Instruments -- Credit Losses
The Financial Accounting Standards Board issued a new accounting standard that will be effective for the Corporation on January 1, 2020. The standard replaces the existing measurement of the allowance for credit losses that is based on management’s best estimate of probable credit losses inherent in the Corporation’s lending activities with management’s best estimate of lifetime expected credit losses inherent in the Corporation’s financial assets that are recognized at amortized cost. The standard will also expand credit quality disclosures. While the standard changes the measurement of the allowance for credit losses, it does not change the Corporation’s credit risk of its lending portfolios. The credit loss estimation models and processes to be used in implementing the new standard have largely been designed and developed. The validation of the models and testing of controls are in process and expected to be completed during 2019. Currently, the impact of this new accounting standard may be an increase in the Corporation’s allowance for credit losses at the date of adoption which would have a resulting negative adjustment to retained earnings. The ultimate impact will be dependent on the characteristics of the
Corporation’s portfolio at adoption date as well as the macroeconomic conditions and forecasts as of that date.
Significant Accounting Principles
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, cash items in the process of collection, cash segregated under federal and other brokerage regulations, and amounts due from correspondent banks, the Federal Reserve Bank and certain non-U.S. central banks. Certain cash balances are restricted as to withdrawal or usage by legal binding contractual agreements or regulatory requirements.
Securities Financing Agreements
Securities borrowed or purchased under agreements to resell and securities loaned or sold under agreements to repurchase (securities financing agreements) are treated as collateralized financing transactions except in instances where the transaction is required to be accounted for as individual sale and purchase transactions. Generally, these agreements are recorded at acquisition or sale price plus accrued interest, except for certain securities financing agreements that the Corporation accounts for under the fair value option. Changes in the fair value of securities financing agreements that are accounted for under the fair value option are recorded in trading account profits in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
The Corporation’s policy is to monitor the market value of the principal amount loaned under resale agreements and obtain collateral from or return collateral pledged to counterparties when appropriate. Securities financing agreements do not create material credit risk due to these collateral provisions; therefore, an allowance for loan losses is not necessary.
In transactions where the Corporation acts as the lender in a securities lending agreement and receives securities that can be pledged or sold as collateral, it recognizes an asset on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at fair value, representing the securities received, and a liability, representing the obligation to return those securities.
The Corporation accepts securities and loans as collateral that it is permitted by contract or practice to sell or repledge. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the fair value of this collateral was $599.0 billion and $561.9 billion, of which $508.6 billion and $476.1 billion were sold or repledged. The primary source of this collateral is securities borrowed or purchased under agreements to resell.
The Corporation also pledges company-owned securities and loans as collateral in transactions that include repurchase agreements, securities loaned, public and trust deposits, U.S. Treasury tax and loan notes, and short-term borrowings. This collateral, which in some cases can be sold or repledged by the counterparties to the transactions, is parenthetically disclosed on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
In certain cases, the Corporation has transferred assets to consolidated VIEs where those restricted assets serve as collateral for the interests issued by the VIEs. These assets are included on the Consolidated Balance Sheet in Assets of Consolidated VIEs.
In addition, the Corporation obtains collateral in connection with its derivative contracts. Required collateral levels vary depending on the credit risk rating and the type of counterparty. Generally, the Corporation accepts collateral in the form of cash, U.S. Treasury securities and other marketable securities. Based on provisions contained in master netting agreements, the
Corporation nets cash collateral received against derivative assets. The Corporation also pledges collateral on its own derivative positions which can be applied against derivative liabilities.
Financial instruments utilized in trading activities are carried at fair value. Fair value is generally based on quoted market prices for the same or similar assets and liabilities. If these market prices are not available, fair values are estimated based on dealer quotes, pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques where the determination of fair value may require significant management judgment or estimation. Realized gains and losses are recorded on a trade-date basis. Realized and unrealized gains and losses are recognized in trading account profits.
Derivatives and Hedging Activities
Derivatives are entered into on behalf of customers, for trading or to support risk management activities. Derivatives used in risk management activities include derivatives that are both designated in qualifying accounting hedge relationships and derivatives used to hedge market risks in relationships that are not designated in qualifying accounting hedge relationships (referred to as other risk management activities). The Corporation manages interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate sensitivity predominantly through the use of derivatives. Derivatives utilized by the Corporation include swaps, futures and forward settlement contracts, and option contracts.
All derivatives are recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at fair value, taking into consideration the effects of legally enforceable master netting agreements that allow the Corporation to settle positive and negative positions and offset cash collateral held with the same counterparty on a net basis. For exchange-traded contracts, fair value is based on quoted market prices in active or inactive markets or is derived from observable market- based pricing parameters, similar to those applied to over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives. For non-exchange traded contracts, fair value is based on dealer quotes, pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies or similar techniques for which the determination of fair value may require significant management judgment or estimation.
Valuations of derivative assets and liabilities reflect the value of the instrument including counterparty credit risk. These values also take into account the Corporation’s own credit standing.
Trading Derivatives and Other Risk Management Activities
Derivatives held for trading purposes are included in derivative assets or derivative liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet with changes in fair value included in trading account profits.
Derivatives used for other risk management activities are included in derivative assets or derivative liabilities. Derivatives used in other risk management activities have not been designated in qualifying accounting hedge relationships because they did not qualify or the risk that is being mitigated pertains to an item that is reported at fair value through earnings so that the effect of measuring the derivative instrument and the asset or liability to which the risk exposure pertains will offset in the Consolidated Statement of Income to the extent effective. The changes in the fair value of derivatives that serve to mitigate certain risks associated with mortgage servicing rights (MSRs), interest rate lock commitments (IRLCs) and first-lien mortgage loans held-for-sale (LHFS) that are originated by the Corporation are recorded in other income. Changes in the fair value of derivatives that serve to mitigate interest rate risk and foreign currency risk are included
in other income. Credit derivatives are also used by the Corporation to mitigate the risk associated with various credit exposures. The changes in the fair value of these derivatives are included in other income.
Derivatives Used For Hedge Accounting Purposes (Accounting Hedges)
For accounting hedges, the Corporation formally documents at inception all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as the risk management objectives and strategies for undertaking various accounting hedges. Additionally, the Corporation primarily uses regression analysis at the inception of a hedge and for each reporting period thereafter to assess whether the derivative used in an accounting hedge transaction is expected to be and has been highly effective in offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of a hedged item or forecasted transaction. The Corporation discontinues hedge accounting when it is determined that a derivative is not expected to be or has ceased to be highly effective as a hedge, and then reflects changes in fair value of the derivative in earnings after termination of the hedge relationship.
Fair value hedges are used to protect against changes in the fair value of the Corporation’s assets and liabilities that are attributable to interest rate or foreign exchange volatility. Changes in the fair value of derivatives designated as fair value hedges are recorded in earnings, together and in the same income statement line item with changes in the fair value of the related hedged item. If a derivative instrument in a fair value hedge is terminated or the hedge designation removed, the previous adjustments to the carrying value of the hedged asset or liability are subsequently accounted for in the same manner as other components of the carrying value of that asset or liability. For interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, such adjustments are amortized to earnings over the remaining life of the respective asset or liability.
Cash flow hedges are used primarily to minimize the variability in cash flows of assets and liabilities or forecasted transactions caused by interest rate or foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Changes in the fair value of derivatives used in cash flow hedges are recorded in accumulated OCI and are reclassified into the line item in the income statement in which the hedged item is recorded in the same period the hedged item affects earnings. Components of a derivative that are excluded in assessing hedge effectiveness are recorded in the same income statement line item as the hedged item.
Net investment hedges are used to manage the foreign exchange rate sensitivity arising from a net investment in a foreign operation. Changes in the spot prices of derivatives that are designated as net investment hedges of foreign operations are recorded as a component of accumulated OCI. The remaining components of these derivatives are excluded in assessing hedge effectiveness and are recorded in other income.
Debt securities are reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at their trade date. Their classification is dependent on the purpose for which the securities were acquired. Debt securities purchased for use in the Corporation’s trading activities are reported in trading account assets at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in trading account profits. Substantially all other debt securities purchased are used in the Corporation’s asset and liability management (ALM) activities and are reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as either debt securities carried at fair value or as held-to-maturity (HTM) debt securities. Debt securities carried at fair value are either available-for-sale (AFS)
securities with unrealized gains and losses net-of-tax included in accumulated OCI or carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in other income. HTM debt securities, which are certain debt securities that management has the intent and ability to hold to maturity, are reported at amortized cost.
The Corporation regularly evaluates each AFS and HTM debt security where the value has declined below amortized cost to assess whether the decline in fair value is other than temporary. In determining whether an impairment is other than temporary, the Corporation considers the severity and duration of the decline in fair value, the length of time expected for recovery, the financial condition of the issuer, and other qualitative factors, as well as whether the Corporation either plans to sell the security or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the security before recovery of the amortized cost. For AFS debt securities the Corporation intends to hold, an analysis is performed to determine how much of the decline in fair value is related to the issuer’s credit and how much is related to market factors (e.g., interest rates). If any of the decline in fair value is due to credit, an other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) loss is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Income for that amount. If any of the decline in fair value is related to market factors, that amount is recognized in accumulated OCI. In certain instances, the credit loss may exceed the total decline in fair value, in which case, the difference is due to market factors and is recognized as an unrealized gain in accumulated OCI. If the Corporation intends to sell or believes it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the debt security, it is written down to fair value as an OTTI loss.
Interest on debt securities, including amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts, is included in interest income. Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted to interest income at a constant effective yield over the contractual lives of the securities. Realized gains and losses from the sales of debt securities are determined using the specific identification method.
Equity securities with readily determinable fair values that are not held for trading purposes are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in other income. Equity securities that do not have readily determinable fair values are held at cost and evaluated for impairment. These securities are reported in other assets or time deposits placed and other short-term investments.
Loans and Leases
Loans, with the exception of loans accounted for under the fair value option, are measured at historical cost and reported at their outstanding principal balances net of any unearned income, charge-offs, unamortized deferred fees and costs on originated loans, and for purchased loans, net of any unamortized premiums or discounts. Loan origination fees and certain direct origination costs are deferred and recognized as adjustments to interest income over the lives of the related loans. Unearned income, discounts and premiums are amortized to interest income using a level yield methodology. The Corporation elects to account for certain consumer and commercial loans under the fair value option with changes in fair value reported in other income.
Under applicable accounting guidance, for reporting purposes, the loan and lease portfolio is categorized by portfolio segment and, within each portfolio segment, by class of financing receivables. A portfolio segment is defined as the level at which an entity develops and documents a systematic methodology to determine the allowance for credit losses, and a class of financing receivables is defined as the level of disaggregation of portfolio segments based on the initial measurement attribute, risk
characteristics and methods for assessing risk. The Corporation’s three portfolio segments are Consumer Real Estate, Credit Card and Other Consumer, and Commercial. The classes within the Consumer Real Estate portfolio segment are residential mortgage and home equity. The classes within the Credit Card and Other Consumer portfolio segment are U.S. credit card, direct/indirect consumer and other consumer. The classes within the Commercial portfolio segment are U.S. commercial, non-U.S. commercial, commercial real estate, commercial lease financing and U.S. small business commercial.
Purchased Credit-impaired Loans
At acquisition, purchased credit-impaired (PCI) loans are recorded at fair value with no allowance for credit losses, and accounted for individually or aggregated in pools based on similar risk characteristics. The expected cash flows in excess of the amount paid for the loans is referred to as the accretable yield and is recorded as interest income over the remaining estimated life of the loan or pool of loans. The excess of the contractual principal and interest over the expected cash flows of the PCI loans is referred to as the nonaccretable difference. If, upon subsequent valuation, the Corporation determines it is probable that the present value of the expected cash flows has decreased, a charge to the provision for credit losses is recorded. If it is probable that there is a significant increase in the present value of expected cash flows, the allowance for credit losses is reduced or, if there is no remaining allowance for credit losses related to these PCI loans, the accretable yield is increased through a reclassification from nonaccretable difference, resulting in a prospective increase in interest income. Reclassifications to or from nonaccretable difference can also occur for changes in the estimated lives of the PCI loans. If a loan within a PCI pool is sold, foreclosed, forgiven or the expectation of any future proceeds is remote, the loan is removed from the pool at its proportional carrying value. If the loan’s recovery value is less than its carrying value, the difference is first applied against the PCI pool’s nonaccretable difference and then against the allowance for credit losses.
The Corporation provides equipment financing to its customers through a variety of lease arrangements. Direct financing leases are carried at the aggregate of lease payments receivable plus estimated residual value of the leased property less unearned income. Leveraged leases, which are a form of financing leases, are reported net of non-recourse debt. Unearned income on leveraged and direct financing leases is accreted to interest income over the lease terms using methods that approximate the interest method.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The allowance for credit losses, which includes the allowance for loan and lease losses and the reserve for unfunded lending commitments, represents management’s estimate of probable incurred credit losses in the Corporation’s loan and lease portfolio excluding loans and unfunded lending commitments accounted for under the fair value option. The allowance for credit losses includes both quantitative and qualitative components. The qualitative component has a higher degree of management subjectivity, and includes factors such as concentrations, economic conditions and other considerations. The allowance for loan and lease losses represents the estimated probable credit losses on funded consumer and commercial loans and leases while the reserve for unfunded lending commitments, including standby letters of credit (SBLCs) and binding unfunded loan commitments, represents estimated probable credit losses o
n these unfunded credit instruments based on utilization assumptions. Lending-related credit exposures deemed to be uncollectible, excluding loans carried at fair value, are charged off against these accounts.
The Corporation performs periodic and systematic detailed reviews of its lending portfolios to identify credit risks and to assess the overall collectability of those portfolios. The allowance on certain homogeneous consumer loan portfolios, which generally consist of consumer real estate loans within the Consumer Real Estate portfolio segment and credit card loans within the Credit Card and Other Consumer portfolio segment, is based on aggregated portfolio segment evaluations generally by product type. Loss forecast models are utilized for these portfolios which consider a variety of factors including, but not limited to, historical loss experience, estimated defaults or foreclosures based on portfolio trends, delinquencies, bankruptcies, economic conditions, credit scores and the amount of loss in the event of default.
For consumer loans secured by residential real estate, using statistical modeling methodologies, the Corporation estimates the number of loans that will default based on the individual loan attributes aggregated into pools of homogeneous loans with similar attributes. The attributes that are most significant to the probability of default and are used to estimate defaults include refreshed loan-to-value (LTV) or, in the case of a subordinated lien, refreshed combined LTV (CLTV), borrower credit score, months since origination (referred to as vintage) and geography, all of which are further broken down by present collection status (whether the loan is current, delinquent, in default or in bankruptcy). The severity or loss given default is estimated based on the refreshed LTV for first-lien mortgages or CLTV for subordinated liens. The estimates are based on the Corporation’s historical experience with the loan portfolio, adjusted to reflect an assessment of environmental factors not yet reflected in the historical data underlying the loss estimates, such as changes in real estate values, local and national economies, underwriting standards and the regulatory environment. The probability of default models also incorporate recent experience with modification programs including re-defaults subsequent to modification, a loan’s default history prior to modification and the change in borrower payments post-modification. On home equity loans where the Corporation holds only a second-lien position and foreclosure is not the best alternative, the loss severity is estimated at 100 percent.
The allowance on certain commercial loans (except business card and certain small business loans) is calculated using loss rates delineated by risk rating and product type. Factors considered when assessing loss rates include the value of the underlying collateral, if applicable, the industry of the obligor, and the obligor’s liquidity and other financial indicators along with certain qualitative factors. These statistical models are updated regularly for changes in economic and business conditions. Included in the analysis of consumer and commercial loan portfolios are qualitative estimates which are maintained to cover uncertainties that affect the Corporation’s estimate of probable losses including domestic and global economic uncertainty and large single-name defaults.
For individually impaired loans, which include nonperforming commercial loans as well as consumer and commercial loans and leases modified in a troubled debt restructuring (TDR), management measures impairment primarily based on the present value of payments expected to be received, discounted at the loans’ original effective contractual interest rates. Credit card loans are discounted at the portfolio average contractual annual percentage rate, excluding promotionally priced loans, in effect prior to restructuring. Impaired loans and TDRs may also be
measured based on observable market prices, or for loans that are solely dependent on the collateral for repayment, the estimated fair value of the collateral less costs to sell. If the recorded investment in impaired loans exceeds this amount, a specific allowance is established as part of the allowance for loan and lease losses unless these are secured consumer loans that are solely dependent on collateral for repayment, in which case the amount that exceeds the fair value of the collateral is charged off.
Generally, the Corporation initially estimates the fair value of the collateral securing these consumer real estate-secured loans using an automated valuation model (AVM). An AVM is a tool that estimates the value of a property by reference to market data including sales of comparable properties and price trends specific to the Metropolitan Statistical Area in which the property being valued is located. In the event that an AVM value is not available, the Corporation utilizes publicized indices or if these methods provide less reliable valuations, the Corporation uses appraisals or broker price opinions to estimate the fair value of the collateral. While there is inherent imprecision in these valuations, the Corporation believes that they are representative of the portfolio in the aggregate.
In addition to the allowance for loan and lease losses, the Corporation also estimates probable losses related to unfunded lending commitments, such as letters of credit, financial guarantees and binding unfunded loan commitments. Unfunded lending commitments are subject to individual reviews and are analyzed and segregated by risk according to the Corporation’s internal risk rating scale. These risk classifications, in conjunction with an analysis of historical loss experience, utilization assumptions, current economic conditions, performance trends within the portfolio and any other pertinent information, result in the estimation of the reserve for unfunded lending commitments.
The allowance for credit losses related to the loan and lease portfolio is reported separately on the Consolidated Balance Sheet whereas the reserve for unfunded lending commitments is reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet in accrued expenses and other liabilities. The provision for credit losses related to the loan and lease portfolio and unfunded lending commitments is reported in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
Nonperforming Loans and Leases, Charge-offs and Delinquencies
Nonperforming loans and leases generally include loans and leases that have been placed on nonaccrual status. Loans accounted for under the fair value option, PCI loans and LHFS are not reported as nonperforming.
In accordance with the Corporation’s policies, consumer real estate-secured loans, including residential mortgages and home equity loans, are generally placed on nonaccrual status and classified as nonperforming at 90 days past due unless repayment of the loan is insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) or through individually insured long-term standby agreements with Fannie Mae (FNMA) or Freddie Mac (FHLMC) (the fully-insured portfolio). Residential mortgage loans in the fully-insured portfolio are not placed on nonaccrual status and, therefore, are not reported as nonperforming. Junior-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status and classified as nonperforming when the underlying first-lien mortgage loan becomes 90 days past due even if the junior-lien loan is current. The outstanding balance of real estate-secured loans that is in excess of the estimated property value less costs to sell is charged off no later than the end of the month in which the loan becomes 180 days past due unless the loan is fully insured, or for loans in bankruptcy, within
60 days of receipt of notification of filing, with the remaining balance classified as nonperforming.
Consumer loans secured by personal property, credit card loans and other unsecured consumer loans are not placed on nonaccrual status prior to charge-off and, therefore, are not reported as nonperforming loans, except for certain secured consumer loans, including those that have been modified in a TDR. Personal property-secured loans (including auto loans) are charged off to collateral value no later than the end of the month in which the account becomes 120 days past due, or upon repossession of an auto or, for loans in bankruptcy, within 60 days of receipt of notification of filing. Credit card and other unsecured customer loans are charged off no later than the end of the month in which the account becomes 180 days past due, within 60 days after receipt of notification of death or bankruptcy, or upon confirmation of fraud.
Commercial loans and leases, excluding business card loans, that are past due 90 days or more as to principal or interest, or where reasonable doubt exists as to timely collection, including loans that are individually identified as being impaired, are generally placed on nonaccrual status and classified as nonperforming unless well-secured and in the process of collection.
Business card loans are charged off in the same manner as consumer credit card loans. These loans are not placed on nonaccrual status prior to charge-off and, therefore, are not reported as nonperforming loans. Other commercial loans and leases are generally charged off when all or a portion of the principal amount is determined to be uncollectible.
The entire balance of a consumer loan or commercial loan or lease is contractually delinquent if the minimum payment is not received by the specified due date on the customer’s billing statement. Interest and fees continue to accrue on past due loans and leases until the date the loan is placed on nonaccrual status, if applicable. Accrued interest receivable is reversed when loans and leases are placed on nonaccrual status. Interest collections on nonaccruing loans and leases for which the ultimate collectability of principal is uncertain are applied as principal reductions; otherwise, such collections are credited to income when received. Loans and leases may be restored to accrual status when all principal and interest is current and full repayment of the remaining contractual principal and interest is expected.
PCI loans are recorded at fair value at the acquisition date. Although the PCI loans may be contractually delinquent, the Corporation does not classify these loans as nonperforming as the loans were written down to fair value at the acquisition date and the accretable yield is recognized in interest income over the remaining life of the loan. In addition, reported net charge-offs exclude write-offs on PCI loans as the fair value already considers the estimated credit losses.
Troubled Debt Restructurings
Consumer and commercial loans and leases whose contractual terms have been restructured in a manner that grants a concession to a borrower experiencing financial difficulties are classified as TDRs. Concessions could include a reduction in the interest rate to a rate that is below market on the loan, payment extensions, forgiveness of principal, forbearance or other actions designed to maximize collections. Loans that are carried at fair value, LHFS and PCI loans are not classified as TDRs.
Loans and leases whose contractual terms have been modified in a TDR and are current at the time of restructuring may remain on accrual status if there is demonstrated performance prior to the restructuring and payment in full under the restructured terms
is expected. Otherwise, the loans are placed on nonaccrual status and reported as nonperforming, except for fully-insured consumer real estate loans, until there is sustained repayment performance for a reasonable period, generally six months. If accruing TDRs cease to perform in accordance with their modified contractual terms, they are placed on nonaccrual status and reported as nonperforming TDRs.
Secured consumer loans that have been discharged in Chapter 7 bankruptcy and have not been reaffirmed by the borrower are classified as TDRs at the time of discharge. Such loans are placed on nonaccrual status and written down to the estimated collateral value less costs to sell no later than at the time of discharge. If these loans are contractually current, interest collections are generally recorded in interest income on a cash basis. Consumer real estate-secured loans for which a binding offer to restructure has been extended are also classified as TDRs. Credit card and other unsecured consumer loans that have been renegotiated in a TDR generally remain on accrual status until the loan is either paid in full or charged off, which occurs no later than the end of the month in which the loan becomes 180 days past due or, for loans that have been placed on a fixed payment plan, 120 days past due.
A loan that had previously been modified in a TDR and is subsequently refinanced under current underwriting standards at a market rate with no concessionary terms is accounted for as a new loan and is no longer reported as a TDR.
Loans that are intended to be sold in the foreseeable future, including residential mortgages, loan syndications, and to a lesser degree, commercial real estate, consumer finance and other loans, are reported as LHFS and are carried at the lower of aggregate cost or fair value. The Corporation accounts for certain LHFS, including residential mortgage LHFS, under the fair value option. Loan origination costs related to LHFS that the Corporation accounts for under the fair value option are recognized in noninterest expense when incurred. Loan origination costs for LHFS carried at the lower of cost or fair value are capitalized as part of the carrying value of the loans and recognized as a reduction of noninterest income upon the sale of such loans. LHFS that are on nonaccrual status and are reported as nonperforming, as defined in the policy herein, are reported separately from nonperforming loans and leases.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are recognized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Estimated lives range up to 40 years for buildings, up to 12 years for furniture and equipment, and the shorter of lease term or estimated useful life for leasehold improvements.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill is the purchase premium after adjusting for the fair value of net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized but is reviewed for potential impairment on an annual basis, or when events or circumstances indicate a potential impairment, at the reporting unit level. A reporting unit is a business segment or one level below a business segment.
The Corporation assesses the fair value of each reporting unit against its carrying value, including goodwill, as measured by allocated equity. For purposes of goodwill impairment testing, the Corporation utilizes allocated equity as a proxy for the carrying value of its reporting units. Allocated equity in the reporting units
is comprised of allocated capital plus capital for the portion of goodwill and intangibles specifically assigned to the reporting unit.
In performing its goodwill impairment testing, the Corporation first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. Qualitative factors include, among other things, macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, financial performance of the respective reporting unit and other relevant entity- and reporting-unit specific considerations.
If the Corporation concludes it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a quantitative assessment is performed. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired; however, if the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an additional step is performed to measure potential impairment.
This step involves calculating an implied fair value of goodwill which is the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit, as determined in the first step, over the aggregate fair values of the assets, liabilities and identifiable intangibles as if the reporting unit was being acquired in a business combination. If the implied fair value of goodwill exceeds the goodwill assigned to the reporting unit, there is no impairment. If the goodwill assigned to a reporting unit exceeds the implied fair value of goodwill, an impairment charge is recorded for the excess. An impairment loss recognized cannot exceed the amount of goodwill assigned to a reporting unit. An impairment loss establishes a new basis in the goodwill, and subsequent reversals of goodwill impairment losses are not permitted under applicable accounting guidance.
For intangible assets subject to amortization, an impairment loss is recognized if the carrying value of the intangible asset is not recoverable and exceeds fair value. The carrying value of the intangible asset is considered not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset. Intangible assets deemed to have indefinite useful lives are not subject to amortization. An impairment loss is recognized if the carrying value of the intangible asset with an indefinite life exceeds its fair value.
Variable Interest Entities
A VIE is an entity that lacks equity investors or whose equity investors do not have a controlling financial interest in the entity through their equity investments. The Corporation consolidates a VIE if it has both the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and an obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIE. On a quarterly basis, the Corporation reassesses its involvement with the VIE and evaluates the impact of changes in governing documents and its financial interests in the VIE. The consolidation status of the VIEs with which the Corporation is involved may change as a result of such reassessments.
The Corporation primarily uses VIEs for its securitization activities, in which the Corporation transfers whole loans or debt securities into a trust or other vehicle. When the Corporation is the servicer of whole loans held in a securitization trust, including non-agency residential mortgages, home equity loans, credit cards, and other loans, the Corporation has the power to direct the most significant activities of the trust. The Corporation generally does not have the power to direct the most significant activities of a residential mortgage agency trust except in certain circumstances in which the Corporation holds substantially all of the issued securities and has the unilateral right to liquidate the trust. The power to direct the most significant activities of a commercial
mortgage securitization trust is typically held by the special servicer or by the party holding specific subordinate securities which embody certain controlling rights. The Corporation consolidates a whole-loan securitization trust if it has the power to direct the most significant activities and also holds securities issued by the trust or has other contractual arrangements, other than standard representations and warranties, that could potentially be significant to the trust.
The Corporation may also transfer trading account securities and AFS securities into municipal bond or resecuritization trusts. The Corporation consolidates a municipal bond or resecuritization trust if it has control over the ongoing activities of the trust such as the remarketing of the trust’s liabilities or, if there are no ongoing activities, sole discretion over the design of the trust, including the identification of securities to be transferred in and the structure of securities to be issued, and also retains securities or has liquidity or other commitments that could potentially be significant to the trust. The Corporation does not consolidate a municipal bond or resecuritization trust if one or a limited number of third-party investors share responsibility for the design of the trust or have control over the significant activities of the trust through liquidation or other substantive rights.
Other VIEs used by the Corporation include collateralized debt obligations (CDOs), investment vehicles created on behalf of customers and other investment vehicles. The Corporation does not routinely serve as collateral manager for CDOs and, therefore, does not typically have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of a CDO. However, following an event of default, if the Corporation is a majority holder of senior securities issued by a CDO and acquires the power to manage its assets, the Corporation consolidates the CDO.
The Corporation consolidates a customer or other investment vehicle if it has control over the initial design of the vehicle or manages the assets in the vehicle and also absorbs potentially significant gains or losses through an investment in the vehicle, derivative contracts or other arrangements. The Corporation does not consolidate an investment vehicle if a single investor controlled the initial design of the vehicle or manages the assets in the vehicles or if the Corporation does not have a variable interest that could potentially be significant to the vehicle.
Retained interests in securitized assets are initially recorded at fair value. In addition, the Corporation may invest in debt securities issued by unconsolidated VIEs. Fair values of these debt securities, which are classified as trading account assets, debt securities carried at fair value or HTM securities, are based primarily on quoted market prices in active or inactive markets. Generally, quoted market prices for retained residual interests are not available; therefore, the Corporation estimates fair values based on the present value of the associated expected future cash flows.
The Corporation measures the fair values of its assets and liabilities, where applicable, in accordance with accounting guidance that requires an entity to base fair value on exit price. Under this guidance, an entity is required to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs in measuring fair value. A hierarchy is established which categorizes fair value measurements into three levels based on the inputs to the valuation technique with the highest priority given to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets and the lowest priority given to unobservable inputs. The Corporation categorizes its fair value measurements of financial instruments based on this three-level hierarchy.
There are two components of income tax expense: current and deferred. Current income tax expense reflects taxes to be paid or refunded for the current period. Deferred income tax expense results from changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities between periods. These gross deferred tax assets and liabilities represent decreases or increases in taxes expected to be paid in the future because of future reversals of temporary differences in the bases of assets and liabilities as measured by tax laws and their bases as reported in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for tax attributes such as net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts management concludes are more likely than not to be realized.
Income tax benefits are recognized and measured based upon a two-step model: first, a tax position must be more likely than not to be sustained based solely on its technical merits in order to be recognized, and second, the benefit is measured as the largest dollar amount of that position that is more likely than not to be sustained upon settlement. The difference between the benefit recognized and the tax benefit claimed on a tax return is referred to as an unrecognized tax benefit. The Corporation records income tax-related interest and penalties, if applicable, within income tax expense.
The following summarizes the Corporation’s revenue recognition accounting policies for certain noninterest income activities.
Card income includes annual, late and over-limit fees as well as fees earned from interchange, cash advances and other miscellaneous transactions and is presented net of direct costs. Interchange fees are recognized upon settlement of the credit and debit card payment transactions and are generally determined on a percentage basis for credit cards and fixed rates for debit cards based on the corresponding payment network’s rates. Substantially all card fees are recognized at the transaction date, except for certain time-based fees such as annual fees, which are recognized over 12 months. Fees charged to cardholders that are estimated to be uncollectible are reserved in the allowance for loan and lease losses. Included in direct cost are rewards and credit card partner payments. Rewards paid to cardholders are related to points earned by the cardholder that can be redeemed for a broad range of rewards including cash, travel and gift cards. The points to be redeemed are estimated based on past redemption behavior, card product type, account transaction activity and other historical card performance. The liability is reduced as the points are redeemed. The Corporation also makes payments to credit card partners. The payments are based on revenue-sharing agreements that are generally driven by cardholder transactions and partner sales volumes. As part of the revenue-sharing agreements, the credit card partner provides the Corporation exclusive rights to market to the credit card partner’s members or customers on behalf of the Corporation.
Service charges include deposit and lending-related fees. Deposit-related fees consist of fees earned on consumer and commercial
deposit activities and are generally recognized when the transactions occur or as the service is performed. Consumer fees are earned on consumer deposit accounts for account maintenance and various transaction-based services, such as ATM transactions, wire transfer activities, check and money order processing and insufficient funds/overdraft transactions. Commercial deposit-related fees are from the Corporation’s Global Transaction Services business and consist of commercial deposit and treasury management services, including account maintenance and other services, such as payroll, sweep account and other cash management services. Lending-related fees generally represent transactional fees earned from certain loan commitments, financial guarantees and SBLCs.
Investment and Brokerage Services
Investment and brokerage services consist of asset management and brokerage fees. Asset management fees are earned from the management of client assets under advisory agreements or the full discretion of the Corporation’s financial advisors (collectively referred to as assets under management (AUM)). Asset management fees are earned as a percentage of the client’s AUM and generally range from 50 basis points (bps) to 150 bps of the AUM. In cases where a third party is used to obtain a client’s investment allocation, the fee remitted to the third party is recorded net and is not reflected in the transaction price, as the Corporation is an agent for those services.
Brokerage fees include income earned from transaction-based services that are performed as part of investment management services and are based on a fixed price per unit or as a percentage of the total transaction amount. Brokerage fees also include distribution fees and sales commissions that are primarily in the
Global Wealth & Investment Management (GWIM) segment and are earned over time. In addition, primarily in the Global Markets segment, brokerage fees are earned when the Corporation fills customer orders to buy or sell various financial products or when it acknowledges, affirms, settles and clears transactions and/or submits trade information to the appropriate clearing broker. Certain customers pay brokerage, clearing and/or exchange fees imposed by relevant regulatory bodies or exchanges in order to execute or clear trades. These fees are recorded net and are not reflected in the transaction price, as the Corporation is an agent for those services.
Investment Banking Income
Investment banking income includes underwriting income and financial advisory services income. Underwriting consists of fees earned for the placement of a customer’s debt or equity securities. The revenue is generally earned based on a percentage of the fixed number of shares or principal placed. Once the number of shares or notes is determined and the service is completed, the underwriting fees are recognized. The Corporation incurs certain out-of-pocket expenses, such as legal costs, in performing these services. These expenses are recovered through the revenue the Corporation earns from the customer and are included in operating expenses. Syndication fees represent fees earned as the agent or lead lender responsible for structuring, arranging and administering a loan syndication.
Financial advisory services consist of fees earned for assisting customers with transactions related to mergers and acquisitions and financial restructurings. Revenue varies depending on the size and number of services performed for each contract and is generally contingent on successful execution of the transaction. Revenue is typically recognized once the transaction is completed and all services have been rendered. Additionally, the Corporation may earn a fixed fee in merger and acquisition transactions to provide a fairness opinion, with the fees recognized when the opinion is delivered to the customer.
Other Revenue Measurement and Recognition Policies
The Corporation did not disclose the value of any open performance obligations at December 31, 2018, as its contracts with customers generally have a fixed term that is less than one year, an open term with a cancellation period that is less than one year, or provisions that allow the Corporation to recognize revenue at the amount it has the right to invoice.
Earnings Per Common Share
Earnings per common share (EPS) is computed by dividing net income allocated to common shareholders by the weighted-average common shares outstanding, excluding unvested common shares subject to repurchase or cancellation. Net income allocated to common shareholders is net income adjusted for preferred stock dividends including dividends declared, accretion of discounts on preferred stock including accelerated accretion when preferred stock is repaid early, and cumulative dividends related to the current dividend period that have not been declared as of period end, less income allocated to participating securities. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing income allocated to common shareholders plus dividends on dilutive convertible preferred stock and preferred stock that can be tendered to exercise warrants, by the weighted-average common shares outstanding plus amounts representing the dilutive effect of stock options outstanding, restricted stock, restricted stock units (RSUs), outstanding warrants and the dilution resulting from the conversion of convertible preferred stock, if applicable.
Foreign Currency Translation
Assets, liabilities and operations of foreign branches and subsidiaries are recorded based on the functional currency of each entity. When the functional currency of a foreign operation is the local currency, the assets, liabilities and operations are translated, for consolidation purposes, from the local currency to the U.S. dollar reporting currency at period-end rates for assets andliabilities and generally at average rates for results of operations. The resulting unrealized gains and losses are reported as a component of accumulated OCI, net-of-tax. When the foreign entity’s functional currency is the U.S. dollar, the resulting remeasurement gains or losses on foreign currency-denominated assets or liabilities are included in earnings.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef