|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
The components of income tax expense for 2018, 2017 and 2016 are presented in the table below.
Total income tax expense does not reflect the tax effects of items that are included in OCI each period. For more information, see Note 14 – Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss). Other tax effects included in OCI each period resulted in a benefit of $1.2 billion, $1.2 billion and $498 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. In addition, prior to 2017, total income tax expense did not reflect tax effects associated with the Corporation’s employee stock plans which decreased common stock and additional paid-in capital $41 million in 2016.
Income tax expense for 2018, 2017 and 2016 varied from the amount computed by applying the statutory income tax rate to income before income taxes. The Corporation’s federal statutory tax rate was 21 percent for 2018 and 35 percent for 2017 and 2016. A reconciliation of the expected U.S. federal income tax expense, calculated by applying the federal statutory tax rate, to the Corporation’s actual income tax expense, and the effective tax rates for 2018, 2017 and 2016 are presented in the table below.
On December 22, 2017, the President signed into law the Tax Act which made significant changes to federal income tax law including, among other things, reducing the statutory corporate income tax rate to 21 percent from 35 percent and changing the taxation of the Corporation’s non-U.S. business activities. The impact on net income in 2017 was $2.9 billion, driven by $2.3 billion in income tax expense, largely from a lower valuation of certain U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities. The change in the statutory tax rate also impacted the Corporation’s tax-advantaged energy investments, resulting in a downward valuation adjustment of $946 million recorded in other income and a related income tax benefit of $347 million, which when netted against the $2.3 billion, resulted in a net impact on income tax expense of $1.9 billion. The Corporation has completed its analysis and accounting under Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 for the effects of the Tax Act.
The reconciliation of the beginning unrecognized tax benefits (UTB) balance to the ending balance is presented in the following table.
At December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the balance of the Corporation’s UTBs which would, if recognized, affect the Corporation’s effective tax rate was $1.6 billion, $1.2 billion and $0.6 billion, respectively. Included in the UTB balance are some items the recognition of which would not affect the effective tax rate, such as the tax effect of certain temporary differences, the portion of gross state UTBs that would be offset by the tax benefit of the associated federal deduction and the portion of gross non-U.S. UTBs that would be offset by tax reductions in other jurisdictions.
The Corporation files income tax returns in more than 100 state and non-U.S. jurisdictions each year. The IRS and other tax authorities in countries and states in which the Corporation has significant business operations examine tax returns periodically (continuously in some jurisdictions). The following table
summarizes the status of examinations by major jurisdiction for the Corporation and various subsidiaries at December 31, 2018.
It is reasonably possible that the UTB balance may decrease by as much as $1.2 billion during the next 12 months, since
resolved items will be removed from the balance whether their resolution results in payment or recognition.
The Corporation recognized interest expense of $43 million, $1 million and $56 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Corporation’s accrual for interest and penalties that related to income taxes, net of taxes and remittances, was $218 million and $185 million.
Significant components of the Corporation’s net deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2018 and 2017 are presented in the following table.
The table below summarizes the deferred tax assets and related valuation allowances recognized for the net operating loss (NOL) and tax credit carryforwards at December 31, 2018.
n/a = not applicable
Management concluded that no valuation allowance was necessary to reduce the deferred tax assets related to the U.K. NOL carryforwards and U.S. NOL and general business credit carryforwards since estimated future taxable income will be sufficient to utilize these assets prior to their expiration. The majority of the Corporation’s U.K. net deferred tax assets, which
consist primarily of NOLs, are expected to be realized by certain subsidiaries over an extended number of years. Management’s conclusion is supported by financial results, profit forecasts for the relevant entities and the indefinite period to carry forward NOLs. However, a material change in those estimates could lead management to reassess such valuation allowance conclusions.At December 31, 2018, U.S. federal income taxes had not been provided on approximately $5 billion of temporary differences associated with investments in non-U.S. subsidiaries that are essentially permanent in duration. If the Corporation were to record the associated deferred tax liability, the amount would be approximately $1 billion.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef