Commitments and Contingencies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Commitments and Contingencies Disclosure [Abstract]|
|Commitments and Contingencies||Commitments and Contingencies
In the normal course of business, the Corporation enters into a number of off-balance sheet commitments. These commitments expose the Corporation to varying degrees of credit and market risk and are subject to the same credit and market risk limitation reviews as those instruments recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Credit Extension Commitments
The Corporation enters into commitments to extend credit such as loan commitments, SBLCs and commercial letters of credit to meet the financing needs of its customers. The following table includes the notional amount of unfunded legally binding lending commitments net of amounts distributed (i.e., syndicated or participated) to other financial institutions. The distributed amounts were $10.4 billion and $10.7 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021. The carrying value of the Corporation’s credit extension commitments at December 31, 2022 and 2021, excluding commitments accounted for under
the fair value option, was $1.6 billion and $1.5 billion, which predominantly related to the reserve for unfunded lending commitments. The carrying value of these commitments is classified in accrued expenses and other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Legally binding commitments to extend credit generally have specified rates and maturities. Certain of these commitments have adverse change clauses that help to protect the Corporation against deterioration in the borrower’s ability to pay.
The following table includes the notional amount of commitments of $3.0 billion and $4.8 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021 that are accounted for under the fair value option. However, the table excludes the cumulative net fair value for these commitments of $110 million and $97 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021, which is classified in accrued expenses and other liabilities. For more information regarding the Corporation’s loan commitments accounted for under the fair value option, see Note 21 – Fair Value Option.
(1) At December 31, 2022 and 2021, $2.6 billion and $4.6 billion of these loan commitments were held in the form of a security.
(2) The notional amounts of SBLCs and financial guarantees classified as investment grade and non-investment grade based on the credit quality of the underlying reference name within the instrument were $25.1 billion and $9.5 billion at December 31, 2022, and $26.3 billion and $8.7 billion at December 31, 2021. Amounts in the table include consumer SBLCs of $575 million and $512 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021.
(3) Primarily includes second-loss positions on lease-end residual value guarantees.
(4) Includes business card unused lines of credit.
At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation had commitments to purchase loans (e.g., residential mortgage and commercial real estate) of $636 million and $181 million, which upon settlement will be included in trading account assets, loans or LHFS, and commitments to purchase commercial loans of $294 million and $518 million, which upon settlement will be included in trading account assets.
At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation had commitments to purchase commodities, primarily liquefied natural gas, of $0 and $949 million, which upon settlement will be included in trading account assets.
At both December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation had commitments to enter into resale and forward-dated resale and securities borrowing agreements of $92.0 billion, and commitments to enter into forward-dated repurchase and securities lending agreements of $57.8 billion and $32.6 billion as of both period ends. These commitments generally expire within the next 12 months.
At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation had a commitment to originate or purchase up to $3.7 billion and $4.0 billion on a rolling 12-month basis, of auto loans and leases from a strategic partner. This commitment extends through November 2026 and can be terminated with 12 months prior notice.
At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation had unfunded equity investment commitments of $571 million and $395 million.
Bank-owned Life Insurance Book Value Protection
The Corporation sells products that offer book value protection to insurance carriers who offer group life insurance policies to corporations, primarily banks. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the notional amount of these guarantees totaled $4.3
billion and $6.3 billion. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Corporation’s maximum exposure related to these guarantees totaled $632 million and $928 million, with estimated maturity dates between 2033 and 2039.
In the ordinary course of business, the Corporation enters into various agreements that contain indemnifications, such as tax indemnifications, whereupon payment may become due if certain external events occur, such as a change in tax law. The indemnification clauses are often standard contractual terms and were entered into in the normal course of business based on an assessment that the risk of loss would be remote. These agreements typically contain an early termination clause that permits the Corporation to exit the agreement upon these events. The maximum potential future payment under indemnification agreements is difficult to assess for several reasons, including the occurrence of an external event, the inability to predict future changes in tax and other laws, the difficulty in determining how such laws would apply to parties in contracts, the absence of exposure limits contained in standard contract language and the timing of any early termination clauses. Historically, any payments made under these guarantees have been de minimis. The Corporation has assessed the probability of making such payments in the future as remote.
The Corporation in its role as merchant acquirer or as a sponsor of other merchant acquirers may be held liable for any reversed charges that cannot be collected from the merchants, due to, among other things, merchant fraud or insolvency. If charges are properly reversed after a purchase and cannot be collected from either the merchants or merchant acquirers, the Corporation may be held liable for these reversed charges. The ability to reverse a charge is primarily governed by the applicable
payment network rules and regulations, which include, but are not limited to, the type of charge, type of payment used and time limits. The total amount of transactions subject to reversal under payment network rules and regulations processed for the preceding six-month period, which was approximately $501 billion, is an estimate of the Corporation’s maximum potential exposure as of December 31, 2022. The Corporation’s risk in this area primarily relates to circumstances where a cardholder has purchased goods or services for future delivery. The Corporation mitigates this risk by requiring cash deposits, guarantees, letters of credit or other types of collateral from certain merchants. The Corporation’s reserves for contingent losses and the losses incurred related to the merchant processing activity were not significant.
Exchange and Clearing House Member Guarantees
The Corporation is a member of various securities and derivative exchanges and clearinghouses, both in the U.S. and other countries. As a member, the Corporation may be required to pay a pro-rata share of the losses incurred by some of these organizations as a result of another member default and under other loss scenarios. The Corporation’s potential obligations may be limited to its membership interests in such exchanges and clearinghouses, to the amount (or multiple) of the Corporation’s contribution to the guarantee fund or, in limited instances, to the full pro-rata share of the residual losses after applying the guarantee fund. The Corporation’s maximum potential exposure under these membership agreements is difficult to estimate; however, the Corporation has assessed the probability of making any such payments as remote.
Prime Brokerage and Securities Clearing Services
In connection with its prime brokerage and clearing businesses, the Corporation performs securities clearance and settlement services with other brokerage firms and clearinghouses on behalf of its clients. Under these arrangements, the Corporation stands ready to meet the obligations of its clients with respect to securities transactions. The Corporation’s obligations in this respect are secured by the assets in the clients’ accounts and the accounts of their customers as well as by any proceeds received from the transactions cleared and settled by the Corporation on behalf of clients or their customers. The Corporation’s maximum potential exposure under these arrangements is difficult to estimate; however, the potential for the Corporation to incur material losses pursuant to these arrangements is remote.
Fixed Income Clearing Corporation Sponsored Member Repo Program
The Corporation acts as a sponsoring member in a repo program whereby the Corporation clears certain eligible resale and repurchase agreements through the Government Securities Division of the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation on behalf of clients that are sponsored members in accordance with the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation’s rules. As part of this program, the Corporation guarantees the payment and performance of its sponsored members to the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation. The Corporation’s guarantee obligation is secured by a security interest in cash or high-quality securities collateral placed by clients with the clearinghouse and therefore, the potential for the Corporation to incur significant losses under this arrangement is remote. The Corporation’s maximum potential exposure, without taking into consideration the related collateral, was $59.6 billion and $42.0 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021.
In the normal course of business, the Corporation periodically guarantees the obligations of its affiliates in a variety of transactions including ISDA-related transactions and non-ISDA related transactions such as commodities trading, repurchase agreements, prime brokerage agreements and other transactions.
Guarantees of Certain Long-term Debt
The Corporation, as the parent company, fully and unconditionally guarantees the securities issued by BofA Finance LLC, a consolidated finance subsidiary of the Corporation, and effectively provides for the full and unconditional guarantee of trust securities issued by certain statutory trust companies that are 100 percent owned finance subsidiaries of the Corporation.
Representations and Warranties Obligations and Corporate Guarantees
The Corporation securitizes first-lien residential mortgage loans generally in the form of RMBS guaranteed by the GSEs or by GNMA in the case of FHA-insured, VA-guaranteed and Rural Housing Service-guaranteed mortgage loans, and sells pools of first-lien residential mortgage loans in the form of whole loans. In addition, in prior years, legacy companies and certain subsidiaries sold pools of first-lien residential mortgage loans and home equity loans as private-label securitizations or in the form of whole loans. In connection with these transactions, the Corporation or certain of its subsidiaries or legacy companies make and have made various representations and warranties. Breaches of these representations and warranties have resulted in and may continue to result in the requirement to repurchase mortgage loans or to otherwise make whole or provide indemnification or other remedies to sponsors, investors, securitization trusts, guarantors, insurers or other parties (collectively, repurchases).
Unresolved Repurchase Claims
Unresolved representations and warranties repurchase claims represent the notional amount of repurchase claims made by counterparties, typically the outstanding principal balance or the unpaid principal balance at the time of default. In the case of first-lien mortgages, the claim amount is often significantly greater than the expected loss amount due to the benefit of collateral and, in some cases, mortgage insurance or mortgage guarantee payments.
The notional amount of unresolved repurchase claims at December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $5.5 billion and $8.4 billion. These balances included $2.2 billion and $2.8 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021 of claims related to loans in specific private-label securitization groups or tranches where the Corporation owns substantially all of the outstanding securities or will otherwise realize the benefit of any repurchase claims paid.
During 2022, the Corporation received $82 million in new repurchase claims that were not time-barred. During 2022, $3.0 billion in claims were resolved.
Reserve and Related Provision
The reserve for representations and warranties obligations and corporate guarantees was $612 million and $1.2 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021 and is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, and the related provision is included in other income in the Consolidated Statement of Income. The representations and warranties reserve represents the Corporation’s best estimate
Litigation and Regulatory Matters
In the ordinary course of business, the Corporation and its subsidiaries are routinely defendants in or parties to many pending and threatened legal, regulatory and governmental actions and proceedings. In view of the inherent difficulty of predicting the outcome of such matters, particularly where the claimants seek very large or indeterminate damages or where the matters present novel legal theories or involve a large number of parties, the Corporation generally cannot predict the eventual outcome of the pending matters, timing of the ultimate resolution of these matters, or eventual loss, fines or penalties related to each pending matter.
As a matter develops, the Corporation, in conjunction with any outside counsel handling the matter, evaluates whether such matter presents a loss contingency that is probable and estimable, and, for the matters below, whether a loss in excess of any accrued liability is reasonably possible in future periods. Once the loss contingency is deemed to be both probable and estimable, the Corporation will establish an accrued liability and record a corresponding amount of expense. The Corporation continues to monitor the matter for further developments that could affect the amount of the accrued liability that has been previously established. Excluding expenses of internal and external legal service providers, litigation and regulatory investigation-related expense of $1.2 billion and $164 million was recognized in 2022 and 2021.
For any matter disclosed in this Note for which a loss in future periods is reasonably possible and estimable (whether in excess of an accrued liability or where there is no accrued liability) and for representations and warranties exposures, the Corporation’s estimated range of possible loss is $0 to $0.8 billion in excess of the accrued liability, if any, as of December 31, 2022.
The accrued liability and estimated range of possible loss are based upon currently available information and subject to significant judgment, a variety of assumptions and known and unknown uncertainties. The matters underlying the accrued liability and estimated range of possible loss are unpredictable and may change from time to time, and actual losses may vary significantly from the current estimate and accrual. The estimated range of possible loss does not represent the Corporation’s maximum loss exposure.
Information is provided below regarding the nature of the litigation and, where specified, associated claimed damages. Based on current knowledge, and taking into account accrued liabilities, management does not believe that loss contingencies arising from pending matters, including the matters described below, will have a material adverse effect on the consolidated financial condition or liquidity of the Corporation. However, in light of the significant judgment, variety of assumptions and uncertainties involved in those matters, some of which are beyond the Corporation’s control, and the very large or indeterminate damages sought in some of those matters, an adverse outcome in one or more of those matters could be
material to the Corporation’s business or results of operations for any particular reporting period, or cause significant reputational harm.
Deposit Insurance Assessment
On January 9, 2017, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) filed suit against BANA in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia (“District Court”) alleging failure to pay a December 15, 2016 invoice for additional deposit insurance assessments and interest in the amount of $542 million for the quarters ending June 30, 2013 through December 31, 2014.
On April 7, 2017, the FDIC amended its complaint to add a claim for additional deposit insurance and interest in the amount of $583 million for the quarters ending March 31, 2012 through March 31, 2013. The FDIC asserts these claims based on BANA’s alleged underreporting of counterparty exposures that resulted in underpayment of assessments for those quarters, and its Enforcement Section is also conducting a parallel investigation related to the same alleged reporting error. BANA disagrees with the FDIC’s interpretation of the regulations as they existed during the relevant time period and is defending itself against the FDIC’s claims. Pending final resolution, BANA has pledged security satisfactory to the FDIC related to the disputed additional assessment amounts. On March 27, 2018, the District Court denied BANA’s partial motion to dismiss certain of the FDIC’s claims. On January 24, 2023, the magistrate judge assigned to the matter by the District Court judge held oral argument on the parties’ motions for summary judgment and took the motions under advisement.
LIBORThe Corporation, BANA and certain Merrill Lynch entities have been named as defendants along with most of the other LIBOR panel banks in a number of individual and putative class actions by persons alleging they sustained losses on U.S. dollar LIBOR-based financial instruments as a result of collusion or manipulation by defendants regarding the setting of U.S. dollar LIBOR. Plaintiffs assert a variety of claims, including antitrust, Commodity Exchange Act, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO), Securities Exchange Act of 1934, common law fraud and breach of contract claims, and seek compensatory, treble and punitive damages, and injunctive relief. All but one of the cases naming the Corporation and its affiliates relating to U.S. dollar LIBOR are pending in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (“District Court”). The District Court has dismissed all RICO claims, and dismissed all manipulation claims against Bank of America entities based on alleged trader conduct. The District Court has also substantially limited the scope of antitrust, Commodity Exchange Act and various other claims, including by dismissing in their entirety certain individual and putative class plaintiffs’ antitrust claims for lack of standing. On December 30, 2021, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed the dismissal of these antitrust claims for lack of standing. Certain individual and putative class actions remain pending against the Corporation, BANA and certain Merrill Lynch entities. On February 28, 2018, the District Court granted certification of a class of persons that purchased OTC swaps and notes that referenced U.S. dollar LIBOR from one of the U.S. dollar LIBOR panel banks, limited to claims under Section 1 of the Sherman Act.
The entire disclosure for commitments and contingencies.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef