Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Principles

Summary of Significant Accounting Principles
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Principles
Summary of Significant Accounting Principles
Bank of America Corporation, a bank holding company and a financial holding company, provides a diverse range of financial services and products throughout the U.S. and in certain international markets. The term “the Corporation” as used herein may refer to Bank of America Corporation individually, Bank of America Corporation and its subsidiaries, or certain of Bank of America Corporation’s subsidiaries or affiliates.
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Corporation and its majority-owned subsidiaries and those variable interest entities (VIEs) where the Corporation is the primary beneficiary. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Results of operations of acquired companies are included from the dates of acquisition and for VIEs, from the dates that the Corporation became the primary beneficiary. Assets held in an agency or fiduciary capacity are not included in the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Corporation accounts for investments in companies for which it owns a voting interest and for which it has the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financing decisions using the equity method of accounting. These investments are included in other assets. Equity method investments are subject to impairment testing, and the Corporation’s proportionate share of income or loss is included in other income.
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and disclosures. Realized results could differ from those estimates and assumptions.
These unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements of the Corporation's 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The nature of the Corporation's business is such that the results of any interim period are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, which consist of normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the interim period results have been made. The Corporation evaluates subsequent events through the date of filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Certain prior-period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.
On December 20, 2016, the Corporation entered into an agreement to sell its non-U.S. consumer credit card business to a third party. Subject to regulatory approval, this transaction is expected to close by mid-2017. After closing, the Corporation will retain substantially all payment protection insurance (PPI) exposure above existing reserves. The Corporation has considered this exposure in its estimate of a small after-tax gain on the sale. This transaction will reduce risk-weighted assets and goodwill upon closing, benefiting regulatory capital. The assets of this business, which are presented in the assets of business held for sale line on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, included consumer credit card receivables of $9.5 billion and $9.2 billion, an allowance for loan losses of $242 million and $243 million, goodwill of $775 million for both periods, available-for-sale (AFS) debt securities of $691 million and $619 million and all other assets of $296 million and $305 million at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. Liabilities are primarily comprised of intercompany borrowings. This business is included in All Other for reporting purposes.
New Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting for Financial Instruments -- Credit Losses
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued new accounting guidance effective on January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted on January 1, 2019, that will require the earlier recognition of credit losses on loans and other financial instruments based on an expected loss model, replacing the incurred loss model that is currently in use. The Corporation is in the process of identifying and implementing required changes to loan loss estimation models and processes and evaluating the impact of this new accounting guidance, which at the date of adoption is expected to increase the allowance for credit losses with a resulting negative adjustment to retained earnings.
Revenue Recognition
The FASB issued new accounting guidance effective on January 1, 2018 for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers. While the new guidance does not apply to revenue associated with loans or securities, the Corporation has been working to identify the customer contracts within the scope of the new guidance and assess the related revenues to determine if any accounting or internal control changes will be required for the new provisions. While the assessment is not complete, the timing of the Corporation’s revenue recognition is not expected to materially change. The classification of certain contract costs continues to be evaluated, and the final interpretation may impact the presentation of certain contract costs. Overall, the Corporation does not expect the new guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations. The next phase of the Corporation’s implementation work will be to evaluate any changes that may be required to the Corporation’s applicable disclosures.
Lease Accounting
The FASB issued new accounting guidance effective on January 1, 2019 that requires substantially all leases to be recorded as assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. This new accounting guidance uses a modified retrospective transition that will be applied to all prior periods presented. The Corporation is in the process of reviewing its existing lease portfolios, as well as other service contracts for embedded leases, to evaluate the impact of the new accounting guidance on the financial statements, as well as the impact to regulatory capital and risk-weighted assets. The effect of the adoption will depend on its lease portfolio at the time of transition; however, the Corporation does not expect the new accounting guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations. Upon completion of the inventory review and consideration of system requirements, the Corporation will evaluate the impacts of adopting the new accounting guidance on its disclosures.
Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
The FASB issued new accounting guidance effective on January 1, 2018, with early adoption permitted for the provisions related to debit valuation adjustment (DVA), on recognition and measurement of financial instruments, including certain equity investments and financial liabilities recorded at fair value under the fair value option. In 2015, the Corporation early adopted, retrospective to January 1, 2015, the provisions of this new accounting guidance related to DVA on financial liabilities accounted for under the fair value option. The Corporation does not expect the remaining provisions of this new accounting guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations.