Summary of Significant Accounting Principles
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Principles||
Bank of America Corporation (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, the Corporation), a bank holding company and a financial holding company, provides a diverse range of financial services and products throughout the U.S. and in certain international markets. The term "the Corporation" as used herein may refer to Bank of America Corporation individually, Bank of America Corporation and its subsidiaries, or certain of Bank of America Corporation's subsidiaries or affiliates.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Corporation and its majority-owned subsidiaries, and those variable interest entities (VIEs) where the Corporation is the primary beneficiary. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Results of operations of acquired companies are included from the dates of acquisition and for VIEs, from the dates that the Corporation became the primary beneficiary. Assets held in an agency or fiduciary capacity are not included in the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Corporation accounts for investments in companies for which it owns a voting interest and for which it has the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financing decisions using the equity method of accounting. These investments are included in other assets. Equity method investments are subject to impairment testing and the Corporation's proportionate share of income or loss is included in other income.
In the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015, the Corporation reported its results of operations through five business segments: Consumer Banking, Global Wealth & Investment Management (GWIM), Global Banking, Global Markets and Legacy Assets & Servicing (LAS), with the remaining operations recorded in All Other. Effective April 1, 2016, to align the segments with how the Corporation now manages the businesses, the Corporation changed its basis of presentation to eliminate the LAS segment, and following such change, the Corporation reports its results of operations through the following four business segments: Consumer Banking, GWIM, Global Banking and Global Markets, with the remaining operations recorded in All Other. Consumer real estate loans, including loans previously held in or serviced by LAS, have been designated as either core or non-core based on criteria described in Note 4 – Outstanding Loans and Leases and Note 18 – Business Segment Information. Following the realignment, core loans owned by the Corporation, which include all loans originated after the realignment, are held in the Consumer Banking and GWIM segments. Non-core loans owned by the Corporation, which are principally run-off portfolios, as well as loans held for asset and liability management (ALM) activities are held in All Other. Mortgage servicing rights (MSRs) pertaining to core and non-core loans serviced for others are held in Consumer Banking and All Other, respectively. Prior periods have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and disclosures. Realized results could differ from those estimates and assumptions.
These unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements of the Corporation's 2015 Annual Report on Form 10-K. The nature of the Corporation's business is such that the results of any interim period are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, which consist of normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the interim period results have been made. The Corporation evaluates subsequent events through the date of filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Certain prior-period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2016, the Corporation classifies certain leases in other assets. Previously these leases were classified in loans and leases. Prior periods have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.
In the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the six months ended June 30, 2015, as included herein, the Corporation made certain corrections related to non-cash activity which are not material to the Consolidated Financial Statements taken as a whole, do not impact the Consolidated Statement of Income or Consolidated Balance Sheet, and have no impact on the Corporation's cash and cash equivalents balance. Certain non-cash transactions involving the sale of loans and receipt of debt securities as proceeds were incorrectly classified between operating activities and investing activities. The corrections resulted in a $9.3 billion increase in net cash provided by operating activities, offset by a $9.3 billion increase in net cash used in investing activities when compared to the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows in the Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2015.
For information on certain non-cash transactions, which are not reflected in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows, see Note 4 – Outstanding Loans and Leases and Note 6 – Securitizations and Other Variable Interest Entities.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued new accounting guidance that will require the earlier recognition of credit losses on loans and other financial instruments based on an expected loss model, replacing the incurred loss model that is currently in use. Under the new guidance, an entity will measure all expected credit losses for financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The expected loss model will apply to loans and leases, unfunded lending commitments, held-to-maturity (HTM) debt securities and other debt instruments measured at amortized cost. The impairment model for available-for-sale (AFS) debt securities will require the recognition of credit losses through a valuation allowance when fair value is less than amortized cost, regardless of whether the impairment is considered to be other-than-temporary. The new guidance is effective on January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted on January 1, 2019. The Corporation is in the process of evaluating the impact of the provisions of this new accounting guidance, which will increase the allowance for credit losses with a resulting negative adjustment to retained earnings.
In March 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance that simplifies certain aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. The new guidance is effective on January 1, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The Corporation does not expect the provisions of this new accounting guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations.
In February 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance that requires substantially all leases to be recorded as assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. This new accounting guidance is effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the Corporation will record a right of use asset and a lease payment obligation associated with arrangements previously accounted for as operating leases. The Corporation is in the process of evaluating the impact of the provisions of this new accounting guidance on its consolidated financial position, but does not expect the new accounting guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations.
In January 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance on recognition and measurement of financial instruments. The new guidance makes targeted changes to existing GAAP including, among other provisions, requiring certain equity investments to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value reported in earnings and requiring changes in instrument-specific credit risk (i.e., debit valuation adjustments (DVA)) for financial liabilities recorded at fair value under the fair value option to be reported in other comprehensive income (OCI). The accounting for DVA related to other financial liabilities, for example, derivatives, does not change. The new guidance is effective on January 1, 2018, with early adoption permitted for the provisions related to DVA. In 2015, the Corporation early adopted, retrospective to January 1, 2015, the provisions of this new accounting guidance related to DVA on financial liabilities accounted for under the fair value option. The Corporation does not expect the provisions of this new accounting guidance other than those related to DVA, as described above, to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations.
In February 2015, the FASB issued new accounting guidance that amends the criteria for determining whether limited partnerships and similar entities are VIEs, clarifies when a general partner or asset manager should consolidate an entity and eliminates the indefinite deferral of certain aspects of VIE accounting guidance for investments in certain investment funds. Money market funds registered under Rule 2a-7 of the Investment Company Act and similar funds are exempt from consolidation under the new guidance. This new accounting guidance was effective on January 1, 2016, and only affected the Corporation's disclosures. For additional disclosures under this new guidance, see Note 6 – Securitizations and Other Variable Interest Entities.
In August 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance that provides a measurement alternative for entities that consolidate a collateralized financing entity (CFE). The new guidance allows an entity to measure both the financial assets and financial liabilities of a CFE using the fair value of either the financial assets or financial liabilities, whichever is more observable. This alternative is available for CFEs where the financial assets and financial liabilities are carried at fair value and changes in fair value are reported in earnings. This new accounting guidance was effective on January 1, 2016, and did not have a material impact on the Corporation's consolidated financial position or results of operations. For additional disclosures under this new guidance, see Note 6 – Securitizations and Other Variable Interest Entities and Note 14 – Fair Value Measurements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers. This new accounting guidance, which does not apply to financial instruments, is effective on January 1, 2018. The Corporation does not expect the provisions of this new accounting guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef